A Summary of Forces
John A. Gowan
August 2018
email:
jag8@cornell.edu 
johngowan@earthlink.net
home page (page 1)
home page (page 2)
E-Book

Our universe is derived from the "Multiverse" costing no net energy (the negative energy of gravity exactly balances the positive energy of electromagnetism), and bearing no net charge (primordial matter - antimatter balance). Our Universe is an asymmetric "breakout" from the perfect symmetry of the Multiverse (see intuitive description in Genesis) thanks to the Higgs boson(s) and its IVBs  ("Intermediate Vector Bosons"), and the "Leptonic Spectrum" (including leptoquarks), and various Alternative Charge Carriers (which permit charge conservation despite the absence of antimatter).

While the actual mechanism producing our "matter-only" asymmetry is unknown, it clearly depends upon the ability of the partially-charged quarks to form electrically neutral combinations such as neutrons (this is the principle reason why we must have quarks and their partial electrical charges). And this electrical neutrality is also related to the reason why we have three energy levels of elementary particles (electron, muon, tau, and the 3 quark families): there are many more ways to form neutral baryons with three energetic families rather than one (presumably 3 is just enough to create our universe, or we would have more such families).
(See: "Higgs Table".)

Neutrons are essential for the weak force asymmetry mechanism - tri-partite quark charges allow the creation of electrically neutral leptoquarks, which "live" long enough to decay via the asymmetric action of the (notoriously slow) weak force, creating our "matter only" Cosmos. Creation must be symmetric (as in particle-antiparticle pairs), but decay may not be (if particles are electrically neutral).

The Weak Force = the "Information Force" ("identity" charge). Weak force asymmetric decay of electrically neutral primordial leptoquarks is the suspected cause of our cosmic "matter only" asymmetry. Neutrinos are explicit "identity" charges. Massive leptons carry "hidden" identity charges. Leptoquarks decay to baryons, which carry hidden leptoquark identity charges. Heavy leptoquark antineutrinos are the probable source of "dark matter". (See: "The Particle Table".) The IVBs of the weak force are very massive (80 - 90 Gev) because they recreate the primordial energy density of a specific "symmetric energy state" of the "Big Bang", in which the single elementary particles they transform were first created. This mechanism ensures that all elementary particles are identical (within type), no matter when or where they are created.
Any electron can "swap out" with any other electron, or annihilate with any positron (anti-electron). This is just one example of symmetry in the service of conservation.

Massive IVBs are not subject to attrition via the entropic expansion of the Cosmos; "identity" charge is crucial to the accurate replication of elementary particles, and their antimatter annihilation partners.

The Electromagnetic (EM) Force = the "Action Force" (electric charge - attraction and repulsion). Magnetic forces are the relativistic effect of electric charges in motion; the conservation role of magnetic force is to maintain the invariance of electric charge. (Charge invariance is an essential adjunct of charge conservation). (See also: Global and Local Gauge Invariance in the Tetrahedron Model).

The Electroweak (EW) Force = action + information (our "real world" domain of the Periodic Table).

The Gravitational Force = a dimensional metric force converting space into time (and vice versa as in stars) (a conservative and negentropic force) ("location" charge). Time is a necessary metric for energy conservation (and causality) in massive energy forms, due to their variable relative motion. For the same reason, time is not necessary for energy conservation (or causality) in light, whose intrinsic motion at "velocity c" is famously invariant (Einstein). The "black hole" is not just the triumph of gravity over light, but of time over space. However, this victory is ephemeral, as Hawking's "quantum radiance" has shown, and as Noether's Theorem leads us to expect. Paradoxically, due to "Hawking radiation", black holes represent the final triumph of symmetry and light over time, gravity, matter, and asymmetry. This is why black holes are so common in the universe - they are the "desideratum" - the final state of perfect symmetry (and other than "proton decay", the only way to vanish the stubborn "baryon number charge"). Recall that since time stops in the black hole, the final explosion takes place instantaneously from the viewpoint of an internal observer, even though many eons may pass from our (outside) perspective.

The combination of entropy plus symmetry conservation is necessary to understand the dimensional action of gravity. Entropy conservation is seen in the "neg-entropic" character of gravity. Spacetime reduces its expansive entropic dynamic via the inward flow of spacetime. This reduction exactly compensates for the lost outward pos-entropic force of the "intrinsic motion" associated with the light that was converted into atomic bound energy, now composing any gravitating mass. For example, the Earth's mass was once free light (during the primordial era of the "Big Bang") before those photons were converted into massive, asymmetric, "matter-only" atoms. During that conversion, light's intrinsic, pos-entropic expansive dynamic was lost, but since energy must always be associated with some form of entropy, that loss was compensated by neg-entropic gravity, creating time from space as the intrinsic driver of a new 4th dimensional entropic conservation domain (karmic history) for all bound energy forms. Symmetry conservation adds direction to the flow of space (toward the center of the asymmetric mass), and eventually results in the reconversion of bound EM energy to free EM energy, as in stars and other spontaneous astrophysical processes, culminating in the "Hawking radiation" of black holes and the final triumph of Noether's Theorem
, and light and space over matter and time.

"Velocity c" is the "gauge" of a symmetric state of free energy (light); light has no time dimension, no spatial dimension in the direction of motion (light is a 2-dimensional transverse wave - light's 3rd spatial dimension is entropic); light has no mass, bears no charge, and produces no gravitational field in free flight. (The "accelerating expansion of spacetime" is the observational evidence for this latter assertion).


Because light's "clock" is stopped, and light has no third or "distance" dimension, light has forever to go nowhere in its forward "intrinsic" (entropic) motion. This is the basis of light's so-called "infinite" velocity, or light's "non-locality". Light is everywhere within its entropic conservation domain simultaneously. This is a crucial condition of symmetry, which gravitational charge ("location") conserves when light is converted to bound energy of any description.

According to Noether's Theorem, the symmetry of light must be conserved no less than its energy (quality as well as quantity).
This great theorem is the key to Einstein's long sought "Unified Field Theory".
The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light.  The "field vectors" of the forces maintain the invariance of the charges; hence they are adjuncts of charge/symmetry conservation.

History is the entropic conservation domain of bound electromagnetic energy (atomic matter), created by "intrinsic motion t"; space is the analogous entropic conservation domain of free electromagnetic energy (light), created by "intrinsic motion c". These two entropic domains are connected by negentropic gravity, which can create either from the other.

Entropy is a necessary adjunct of energy conservation as it prevents the same energy from being used twice to produce the same work (no "perpetual motion" machine; energy cannot be produced from nothing). Energy conservation itself is necessary because our universe is "on loan" from the Multiverse, or from "the Void".

The Strong Force = the bound energy (nuclear) force ("color" charge) creating stable, long-lived energy reserves (baryons) which can be built into the 92+ atomic nuclei of the Periodic Table, providing a permanent information base for Life (via the Evolutionary (or "Life" Force) (Darwin x competition).

Charge conservation is one form of symmetry conservation. An important feature of symmetry conservation is that repayment of a symmetry debt (charge) can take place anytime in the future, unlike raw energy debts, which must be paid immediately (such as thermal energy debts). Charge conservation is the "credit card" of the universe: "buy now, pay later". Hence charge/symmetry conservation provides us with a (mostly) peaceful interval during which we can do something other than "pay the piper" - live our lives constructively, for example.

Life is the "sufficient reason" or rationale for the existence of our universe. Life is the universe becoming aware of, experiencing, and exploring itself on a local level. A possible global expression of this "life force" is suggested by Chardin, and by the 4x3 fractal algorithm of our "Tetrahedron Model". Life itself is the evidence for "God" in the Universe: Information + Action + Conservation + Creativity. Life is the runaway "computer computing itself" - the "Singularity", compounded like a fractal in the case of human science/math/technology and abstract thought/language/creativity.
(See: "The Human Connection"). (See: the "Tetrahedron Model").

The "work" of the cosmos is the return of "bound" asymmetric atomic matter to its symmetric free state, light (as in our Sun and the stars). (See also: http://www.johnagowan.org/higgstable.html).

Postscript

When massless light is converted to massive matter during the "Big Bang", the raw energy of that light is conserved in the mass of the atoms so created (e = mcc). Any symmetry debts are conserved as charge and spin; the "intrinsic" (entropic) motion of the light is conserved as the gravitational field of the new atoms (Gm). The expansive 3-D intrinsic motion of light (creating the entropic domain of space) is conserved as the contractile 3-D intrinsic motion of gravity (creating time and the entropic domain of history). Collapsing space self-annihilates at the center of mass, leaving behind a temporal residue which is the exact metric equivalent of the annihilated space. This residual temporal entity contains negative entropy (time), which has its own intrinsic motion in the historic domain of causal/karmic relations among massive particles (only). (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time by Gravity".) Just as free and bound forms of EM energy have their own characteristic expressions (photons and atoms), so they also have their own entropy "drives" (the "intrinsic motions" of light and time) and their own entropic conservation domains (space, history, and combined historic spacetime) as created by those drives.

The entropic motion of gravity is due to the entropic motion of time, which pulls space along behind it as it moves into the historic domain. But 3-D space cannot follow time into 1-D history, and self-annihilates at the historic threshold, depositing another metrically equivalent temporal entity, repeating the cycle exactly and indefinitely. Hence gravity and time create each other (a reciprocal process on-going in our Sun); a gravitational field is the spatial evidence for the intrinsic motion of time. (See: "A Description of Gravity".)

The creation of the gravitational field is beautiful in its simplicity: all that gravity is (Einstein's "warpage" of spacetime), is accomplished by the simple exposure of an inherent temporal (asymmetric) dimension embedded in space (spacetime). We furthermore envision this revealed temporal element as also the source of the former intrinsic spatial motion of light: photons flee from this element to protect their own symmetry, which, however, they cannot escape as it is embedded in their very nature (wavelength x frequency = c). Paradoxically, the temporal element is therefore the cause of the intrinsic motion of both light and gravity: it is only the difference between the implicit vs explicit presence of time. (Time is a necessary conservation parameter in the case of massive particles which have no intrinsic spatial motion and whose energy varies with their relative and variable velocity. Time is therefore inherently present in the formulation of EM energy which can take either massless or massive interchangeable forms: wavelength x frequency = c. )

In this website, I use two semiotic models to illustrate (represent) the elements of the theory as they interact.
The first is a 4x3 (or 4x4) grid or matrix, a sort of "periodic table" of the elements/principles/laws of the Unified Field Theory. These elements are the "bare bones" of the theory, physics in its most basic form. The second model is the "Tetrahedron Model",  in which these same elements/principles/laws are arranged in the form of a geometric tetrahedron, the most simple perfect polyhedron, in which all lines, faces, and angles are equal. Both have their uses and both should be studied. The intent is to discover the simplest set of physical principles that is sufficient to describe the complete theory (one would like to have a "mandala" of the theory). The four principles that emerge from this study are the conservation of energy, the conservation of symmetry, entropy, and information.

Biology and the "life force" (Darwinian evolution) emerge from the information principle and the EM force, via the carbon atom and its electron shell. The Periodic Table is the great example of information in the physical sciences, as is DNA in biology. The 4x3 metric of the General System Fractal welds these two information systems indissolubly together: the alpha particle as the "brick" of the Periodic Table; the amino acid as the coding unit of DNA. (four nucleons each comprised of three quarks; four nitrogenous bases code in triplets). Life is the rationale, the "sufficient reason" for our universe. One could spin together a "spiritual" system out of the interaction between the "trinity" of information, the physical forces, and the General System Fractal, but I will leave that task (the union of Science and Religion) to others younger and stronger than I.

(Note: I have said nothing about the cosmology section of the website, as this subject is so difficult conceptually as well as observationally. Others are welcome to argue about it; I've had my say. We are just entering a "golden age" of cosmology, when our giant telescopes may yet reveal the final secrets of our Cosmos.)
email:
jag8@cornell.edu 
johngowan@earthlink.net
home page (page 1)
home page (page 2)
E-Book