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**JOHN A. GOWAN**

Revised June, 2014

**Six Relationships: An Analysis of the
Lines Connecting the 4 Vertices of the "Tetrahedron
Model"**

All great discoveries in experimental physics have been made due to the intuition of men who made free use of models which for them were not products of the imagination but representations of real things. - Max Born

**Abstract**

The simple version of the story of the Cosmos
is the
devolution of light to matter followed by the evolution of
matter back to light - as required by Noether's Theorem
(the conservation of light's symmetry), and as regulated by the
four conservation laws of the "Tetrahedron Model".
But the information content of energy considerably complicates
this simple ontogeny - the Universe apparently seeks, via the
creation of life, self-awareness, self-knowledge, and
self-experience. The negative entropy
of gravity and Natural Selection drives the evolutionary
mechanism of biological matter, with DNA providing replication
and the genetic system providing information conservation
through heritable genes. Because of its genetic system, life has
become a biological storehouse and conservation domain of
molecular information, with humanity advancing this principle
evolutionary axis of the Cosmos (Chardin's view) through
abstract thought, symbolic writing, science and technology. Our
planet (Lovelock's Gaia) is in her reproductive phase, with
humanity as her dispersal agents, seeking new territory in the
Galaxy. The natural tendency to evolve complex information
systems of planetary size (and beyond) can be seen as the simple
outgrowth of matter's search for antimatter (locally employing
human intelligence in the quest), and a reprise of the original
unity, symmetry, and connectivity of the primordial light
Universe. Our universe appears to be an asymmetric "matter only"
bubble of electromagnetic energy that broke away from the
all-symmetric Multiverse because it found a *fully
conserved **pathway* to manifestation and life,
requiring zero net energy and zero net charge (via the negative
energy of gravity and the "alternative
charge carriers").

*Acknowledgments*

The author gratefully acknowledges the collaboration of August T. Jaccaci in developing the General Systems model and concepts discussed in this paper; and his support and contributions over many years of General Systems modeling and discussion, both private and public. The "scientific" content of this paper is my own contribution and responsibility - JAG.

The tetrahedron diagram is a model of the conversion of free electromagnetic energy (light) into bound electromagnetic energy (matter), and their consequent relationship. So far as we know, the creation of baryonic matter (single baryons without antimatter partners) has occurred naturally only once, during the very early moments of the "Big Bang", the birth of our Universe. Other examples of the conversion of free to bound energy, not involving the creation of new baryonic matter, include the conversion of free energy to "work" and the momentum and kinetic energy of massive particles and organized macroscopic systems, and the simple absorption of photons by the electron shells of atoms (including photosynthesis). (Baryons created during radioactive decays do not count because they do not change the total number of baryons in the universe - one baryon simply replaces another by changing or reshuffling its internal quark complement.) The model is reversible in that bound energy is either immediately or ultimately reconverted to free energy by a variety of physical processes, all acting in obedience to Noether's theorem of symmetry conservation.

The tetrahedron diagram is a model of the interrelationship of 4 conservation laws, principles, and their corollaries which underlie or regulate the operation of the 4 forces of physics. This is the ground of natural law which is antecedent to the unified field theory, the realm of principle from which the 4 forces are derived. These 4 principles are: 1) Energy Conservation (1st law of thermodynamics); 2) Entropy (2nd law of thermodynamics); 3) Symmetry Conservation (Noether's Theorem); 4) Causality-Information (law of cause and effect - "karma"). It is a postulate of the "Tetrahedron Model" that these four principles constitute a "minimum linked set", providing a necessary foundation for understanding the Unified Field Theory in the sense of elucidating the relationship between, and the common derivation of, the four forces of physics.

In the primordial transformation of free to bound energy (creating our "matter-only" universe), we find that, in the process, several attributes of light must be conserved. First there is the raw energy and momentum of light, transformed and conserved (by the nuclear and electromagnetic forces) as the mass and momentum of matter (1st Law of Thermodynamics, Energy Conservation). Next there is the spatial entropy drive or intrinsic motion of light, gauged by "velocity c", creating, expanding, and cooling the dimensional conservation domain of light (space). Light's entropy drive is transformed and conserved (by gravity) to the historical entropy drive of matter, the intrinsic motion of time ("velocity T", also gauged by velocity c), creating the dimensional conservation domain of information (historic spacetime - matter's "causal matrix") (2nd Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy, protecting causality and energy conservation). The conversion of space and the drive of spatial entropy (the intrinsic motion of light), to history and the drive of historical entropy (the intrinsic motion of time), is accomplished by both the quantum mechanical and gravitational annihilation of space, exposing a metrically equivalent temporal residue.

Finally, there is the symmetry content of light
and its metric, which is transformed and/or conserved in
obedience to Noether's Theorem as: 1) the charges (and spin) of
matter (the particle-antiparticle form of light - an energetic
aspect of light's symmetry); 2) the forces of gravitation and
inertia (the spatial, metric, or wave form of light - an
entropic aspect of light's symmetry). *The charges of matter
are the symmetry debts of light*. Symmetry-breaking is
necessary to reveal the information content of
particle-antiparticle pairs and their charges, which manifests
as fermions (electrons, neutrinos, and quarks), the atomic
constituents of matter. Charge conservation is a necessary
guarantee to energy conservation, allowing symmetry-breaking and
the conversion of free energy (light) to massive particles and
information: charge conservation therefore plays a role
analogous to that of entropy, the latter being a necessary
guarantee to energy conservation allowing the conversion of free
energy to "work". Gravitational conversion of the spatial
entropy drive of free electromagnetic energy (light's intrinsic
motion) to the historical entropy drive of bound electromagnetic
energy (time's intrinsic motion) creates a local, temporal,
gravitational metric which allows energy, charge, and entropy
conservation in the causal domain of historical spacetime.
Through the creation of time directly from space, gravity
produces a combined spacetime metric in which both free and
bound forms of electromagnetic energy can find all their
conservation requirements satisfied. (See: "Spatial vs
Temporal Entropy".)

Gravity works continuously at "paying down" the
cosmic-scale symmetry/entropy debt of the "matter-only" cosmos
(the debt of missing antimatter), by the creation of time from
space, decelerating the cosmic expansion (addressing the entropy
portion of the debt). This deceleration is opposed by the
conversion of mass to light in multiple astrophysical processes
(addressing the symmetry portion of the debt), converting
negative gravitational entropy into positive electromagnetic
entropy, eventually resulting in a net *acceleration* of
cosmic expansion (as recently observed). (See: "Dark Energy:
Does Light Produce a Gravitational Field?")

Speaking in terms of physical models, the "Trinity" triangle is the precursor of the "Energy Tetrahedron", which it creates in its own "image and likeness". In the 2-dimensional drawing of the tetrahedron model, a "doubling" of the three triangle lines occurs - almost reminiscent of chromosome doubling in biological cell division. This second set of lines becomes the 3 "interior" lines of the (2-D) tetrahedron drawing, all connecting to the 4th pole of causality, matter, and information. In each case, the interior line is formed from an interaction between the two external "Trinity" or triangle lines which enclose them. Thus from a mixture of the C-E free energy and space line with the C-S virtual particle line, we derive the internal raw energy conservation line C-CI, in which the raw energy component of free energy is converted to the mass and momentum of particles. From a mixture of the C-S virtual particle line with the S-E spacetime metric line, we derive the internal S-CI line of the fermions, atoms extracted by symmetry breaking via the Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs) of the weak force from the Heisenberg-Dirac vacuum "sea" of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs. Finally, from a mixture of the E-S line of the spacetime metric and the C-E line of light's intrinsic motion and space, we derive the internal line of time's intrinsic motion and history (including evolution) (E-CI). Note that the three outer triangle or "Trinity" lines are all forms of light, variously expressed as waves, virtual particles, or the metric of spacetime (including "metric particles", the bosons or field vectors of the forces). The model is self-consistent in that the outer "given" light lines naturally produce, through their interaction, the interior "derived" lines of matter which they enclose.

This internal "matter set" of 3 lines is a transformed and conserved duplicate of the outer "Trinity set": 1) conserving the raw energy of light as the mass and momentum of matter (via the quantum mechanical "collapse of light's wave function"); 2) conserving the symmetry of light as the charges (and spin) of matter (via weak force symmetry-breaking and the IVBs), and via the gravitational and inertial forces of the spacetime metric; 3) conserving the spatial entropy drive of light as the historical entropy drive of matter (via the gravitational conversion of space to time). The information produced in matter by atomic structure, and in life forms by the neg-entropic march of gravity, natural selection, evolution, and heritable genes, is conserved in the causal domain of historic spacetime - the conservation domain of information and matter's "causal matrix", created by the entropic march and drive of time.

Matter is created as an asymmetric, conserved form of light whose internal charges, forces, and information content will sooner or later act to return matter to its original symmetric state of light. The extensive information and causal webs created by matter (especially through its biological forms), suggests that bound energy is attempting to recreate in material form the original unity and connectivity of the light Universe, as driven by the electromagnetic force and matter's eternal search for antimatter. In this effort, we discern the operation of another conservation law, perhaps a corollary of Symmetry Conservation, the Conservation of Unity and/or Connectivity, which may be the source of humanity's spiritual awareness. The emergence of "beauty" in biological organisms may likewise be seen as a transformed expression of symmetry conservation in material systems and the source of our aesthetic awareness.

We turn next to an examination of the relationship between each of the 6 lines connecting the 4 vertices of the Tetrahedron Model. The lines are identified in the usual geometric fashion; for example, C-E refers to the line connecting the Conservation (C) and Entropy (E) poles or vertices of the 2-D diagram.

**Synopsis
of the Principle Connections and Interactions of The Tetrahedron
Model**

(Explaining the meaning associated with the lines connecting the 4 vertices or conservation laws of the model. Interactions between the 4 conservation principles are symbolized by the six lines connecting the vertices of the tetrahedron.) (See also: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' vs the 'Standard Model' of Physics: A Comparison".)

(Upper-case abbreviations below refer to the 4 principles: C = Energy Conservation; CI = Causality-Information (or simply Causality); E = Entropy; S = Symmetry. The index "C-CI" therefore refers to the interaction between Energy Conservation and Causality, the line (in the model diagram) connecting the Conservation - Causality vertices, etc.)

**Part I: The
"Trinity of Light":** (The "External"
Lines: **Velocity c; Virtual Particles; "Inertial" Spatial
Metric) **

Entropy, Symmetry, Conservation of Energy (Intrinsic Motion c, Virtual Particles and Virtual Time, the "Inertial" (symmetric) Spatial Metric.)

1) Line C-S: Virtual particle-antiparticle pairs and "non-local" energetic symmetry; 2) Line S-E: the symmetric, a-temporal, "inertial" spatial metric; 3) Line C-E: the intrinsic, entropic, and "absolute" motion of light (creating, expanding, and cooling space).

(See also: "Tetrahedron Model: External Lines"; and "The Ethereal/Material Tetrahedron".)

**C-E)**
The connection between Energy Conservation and Entropy as found
in free electromagnetic energy (light) and "intrinsic motion c".
The creation, expansion, and cooling of space by the intrinsic
motion of light, as gauged by the electromagnetic constant c
("velocity c").

Space is the dimensional conservation/entropy
domain of free energy, created by the entropy drive of light
(light's "intrinsic" (entropic) motion) for light's own
conservation. Space does not preexist the "Big Bang"; spatial
dimensionality is created by the intrinsic motion (entropic
drive) of free electromagnetic energy. Light is the only energy
form which can create its own conservation domain (space) from
nothing - or rather, from its own nature (entropy drive,
"intrinsic motion"). *Interpreted from the perspective of
symmetry conservation,* the "intrinsic" (self-motivated)
motion of light is caused by the "wavelength" or symmetric
spatial component of an electromagnetic wave fleeing the
"frequency" or asymmetric temporal component, which latter is
embedded in light's own nature (the classic "bur under the
saddle") ("frequency multiplied by wavelength = c"). Intrinsic
motion at "velocity c" suppresses the temporal component of
spacetime to an implicit state, maintaining the symmetric
energetic state of a-temporal metric space and "non-local" free
energy, while also causing the entropic expansion and cooling of
the Cosmos. The entropy drive and symmetric energy state of free
energy (light) and the spacetime metric are all gauged and
linked by the electromagnetic constant "c". Time, whether
implicit in light or explicit in matter, is the entropy drive
and the motivating agent for change in the Cosmos. (See: "The
Conversion of Space to Time".)

Entropy creates dimensional
conservation domains (space, history, historic spacetime) in
which energy can be used and transformed, but nevertheless
conserved: this is the connection between the 1st and 2nd laws
of thermodynamics. This is one reason why "velocity c" must be
an effectively infinite ("absolute") velocity; the conservation
of Causality is another. The intrinsic motion of light is caused
by the entropy drive of free energy in the service of energy and
symmetry conservation. (See: "Gravity, Entropy,
and Thermodynamics".) (Concerning the Primordial Forms,
Drives, and Gauges of Entropy (c, G, T) - the intrinsic
dimensional motions of light, gravity, and time -

see: "Spatial vs
Temporal Entropy").

**C-S)** The
connection between Energy Conservation and Symmetry Conservation
as found in free electromagnetic energy (light): (the
suppression of time, distance, and massive particles at
"velocity c"; virtual particles and virtual time; metric and
matter-antimatter symmetry; Noether's Theorem).

Matter-antimatter pairs of elementary particles
are created in the virtual Heisenberg/Dirac vacuum "sea" of
spacetime, apparently as an alternative expression of light's
electromagnetic energy. Under the special high-energy conditions
pertaining during the "Big Bang", it was just this dual
character of light, combined with the asymmetric action of the
weak force, which led to the creation of our "matter-only"
universe. The mixture of wavelike light with the metric
structure of spacetime (itself created by light's intrinsic
motion) exhibits a secondary particle-like expression of energy
in terms of a variety of elementary particle-antiparticle pairs
- according to the rules of quantum mechanics, including
Heisenberg's "Uncertainty Relation" and Dirac's virtual
particle-antiparticle "sea". Virtual particles are potentially
bound forms of energy but they remain as unmanifest (symmetric)
particle pairs so long as they are created (and instantly
annihilated) in equal numbers.

Virtual particle-antiparticle pairs are created
with opposite sets of various charges (color, flavor, electric,
spin) which function to cause their immediate annihilation -
thereby maintaining the non-local, massless, a-temporal,
energetic and metric symmetry of light. The symmetry
keeping/conserving role of electric charge is to prevent light's
symmetric energy state from devolving into asymmetric, immobile,
massive particles and their asymmetric companions: time,
gravity, and charge. Noether's theorem
requires the conservation of light's symmetry, no less than
light's energy, realized (in part) through electrically
motivated annihilation reactions, suppressing the creation of
"real" (massive, temporal) particles, and the metric-warping
gravitational fields which must accompany them. According to
Noether, not only the quantity (total energy) but the quality
(symmetry) of light must be conserved. Symmetry conservation in
light (as gauged by "velocity c") suppresses the creation of
"real" particles from the virtual "sea": as the force carrier or
field vector of electric charge, the photon protects its own
symmetry by means of particle-antiparticle annihilation
reactions. *The
charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.*

Matter is an asymmetric form of light - one half of a particle-antiparticle pair. The function of charge is symmetry conservation, as we see demonstrated by the annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs - returning the potentially massive particles to their original massless, symmetric form, light. When the symmetry of particle-antiparticle pairs (and hence of light) is broken by the weak force creation of matter during the "Big Bang", the charges of the matter half of the particle-antiparticle pairs remain, and their symmetry conservation function continues in the new time/historical dimension as the principle of charge conservation (time and gravity are created simultaneously with massive particles during weak force symmetry-breaking). Charge and charge conservation are necessary to symmetry-breaking and the creation of matter because they allow symmetry conservation to continue in a massive, temporal form during and after the conversion of symmetric light to asymmetric matter. Charge conservation allows the conversion of light to matter and the energy of light to information - information previously expressed (before the creation of particles) as the structural content of the spacetime metric and virtual particle-antiparticle pairs. The information content of the "spacetime metric" is therefore reflected in the "particle metric" - as seen in the 4x3 fractal (resonant) structure of both. The conversion of light's energy to mass, light's entropy to time, and light's symmetry to charge, are the energy conversions and conservation measures necessary for the creation of matter from light (during symmetry-breaking via the asymmetric action of the weak force). We will visit all these conversions and conservation considerations in the second half of this paper, where we discuss the "interior" lines of connection in the "Tetrahedron Model".

**E-S)**
The connection between Entropy and Symmetry Conservation as
found in the inertial forces of spacetime and the intrinsic
motion of light (the creation of the "non-local" spacetime
metric by the intrinsic motion of light). Space vs time, and
"non-local" metric symmetry gauged by "c" (as contrasted with
"local" metric asymmetry gauged by "G").

"Velocity c" gauges, regulates, and maintains
the symmetry of the spacetime metric, suppressing time and
distance (the x, t, dimensions of spacetime). Noether's Theorem
states that symmetry is a conserved property of light and
light's conservation domain, spacetime. The symmetric spacetime
metric is created by the intrinsic motion of light, and is the
site of "inertial" forces which maintain the metric's
energy-conserving symmetry. The "metric" of spacetime is the
measured relationship within and between the dimensions -
"gauged", regulated, created, and maintained by the
electromagnetic constant "c" and the intrinsic motion of light.
"Velocity c" is the gauge of light's "non-local", a-temporal,
and massless symmetric energy state, as well as the gauge of
light's entropy drive (light's intrinsic motion). The symmetry
(uniformity) of the metric is required by energy conservation.
The metric relationship between space and time is "gauged"
(established, fixed, regulated) such that one second of temporal
duration (measured by a clock) is metrically equivalent to
300,000 kilometers of linear space (measured by a meter stick).
It is the function of "velocity c" to maintain the metric
symmetry of space by suppressing time to an implicit state, and
to maintain light's "non-local" symmetric energy state by
suppressing distance in the direction of propagation. "Velocity
c" also suppresses the conversion of virtual particles into real
particles, preventing the devolution of free energy into
asymmetric matter, mass, time, gravity, and charge. The
a-temporal metric symmetry state and entropy drive of light (or
free electromagnetic energy), as expressed in the entropic
(expanding and cooling) conservation domain of spacetime, are
both gauged and linked by "velocity c".

Einstein's "Interval", which measures the
invariant spacetime separation between any two events
(regardless of the relative motion of observers), is zero,
indicating the absence of time. Light is everywhere in its
conservation domain (space) simultaneously, a crucial
distributional feature of light's symmetric energy state. The
breaking of this distributional symmetry of light's energy by
the conversion of light to massive, immobile particles with no
intrinsic spatial motion (during the "Big Bang"), is the root
cause of the gravitational symmetry debt and charge ("location"
- "Gm"), and the consequent creation of the temporal dimension
as an alternative entropy drive for bound EM energy forms. Time
is created by the gravitational annihilation of space, which
leaves a metrically equivalent temporal residue (because
"space" is really "spacetime"). Thus gravity acts to seamlessly
replace light's spatial entropy drive ("intrinsic motion c")
with matter's alternative entropy drive ("intrinsic motion T"),
utilizing and revealing the dual character of the spacetime
metric which must exist to service the conservation requirements
of the free and bound forms of EM energy. The entire dimensional
structure of historic spacetime, including gravitation, is an
entropic conservation containment for electromagnetic energy.
(See also the gravitational line "E-CI" below).

The spacetime metric has both a wavelike aspect
(light, the dimensions, intrinsic motion, etc.), and a
particle-like aspect (the bosons or field vectors, photons and
gravitons, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, etc.). Unlike
the fermions (quarks, leptons) of the atomic elements, bosons
(photons, gluons, gravitons) which are their own antiparticles,
are not created by symmetry-breaking during the "Big Bang", but
appear to be vibrations, compressions, or particle-forming
convolutions of the metric itself, perhaps relicts (in the case
of the IVBs) of the early, dense metric of the "Big Bang".

**Part II: The
"Trinity of Matter"** (The "Internal"
Lines: **Mass, Time, Charge**)

(Matter,
Causality, Information) (h*v* = mcc, the conversion
of free to bound energy; atoms, galaxies, history, information;
"Karma": the historical conservation domain of matter's causal
information "matrix" - historic spacetime).

(See also: "Tetrahedron Model: Interior Lines"; and "The Etheric/Material Tetrahedron".)

**C-CI)**
The connection between Energy Conservation and
Causality-Information (or free and bound electromagnetic energy)
- as seen in massless light vs massive particles.

**Mass:** Raw energy conservation expressed
through the conversion of free energy to the mass and momentum
of particles, as in the creation of matter during the "Big Bang"
(or more simply and commonly, the capture of photons by the
electron shells of atoms).

The heat/light produced by our Sun and captured
by abiotic and biotic chemical and physical processes on Earth
is a secondary example of the transformation of free to bound
energy, not involving the creation of elementary particles. E =
h*v*, E = mcc, h*v* = mcc, are all famous equations
(by Planck, Einstein, and DeBroglie, respectively) which
represent the energetic equivalence between free and bound
electromagnetic energy forms. It is the transformation of free
to bound energy (and vice versa) which is the central process of
the Cosmos (and the "Tetrahedron Model").
The proclivity of light to interact with electrically charged
particles and to conserve its energy in the bound form of
particle mass, momentum, and electronic shells and
configurations, is the basis for the existence of the material
realm of particulate matter, and its highest and most complex
expression, life (including photosynthesis). (Neutrinos, by
contrast, hardly interact with matter at all; "dark matter" (if
it exists) apparently interacts only gravitationally.)

The basic unit of energetic information recorded
in the transformation of light to matter is the quantity of
energy involved, reflected in the mass, momentum, kinetic
energy, and "excitation" of particles, and the "location"
charge of gravitation (Gm). Responding (in accordance with
"Noether's Theorem") to the breaking of light's "non-local"
symmetric energy state (by the conversion of free to bound
energy), gravity records the spacetime location of mass by the
"warpage", "curvature", or "acceleration" of the spacetime
metric. Gravity (immediately) creates matter's time dimension by
the conversion of space to time (gravity's entropy conservation
role), and (eventually) conserves light's "non-local"
distributional and metric symmetry by the conversion of mass to
light in stars, supernovas, quasars, and Hawking's "quantum
radiance" of black holes (gravity's symmetry conservation role).
(See: "The
Double Conservation Role of Gravitation".) The great
difference between energy/entropy conservation and symmetry
conservation is that the latter can be deferred through time -
via the transformation of symmetry to charge followed by charge
conservation - until eventual charge-anticharge annihilation
restores the original symmetry of light. It is charge
conservation (through time) and the services of alternative
charge carriers that allows the breaking of light's
symmetry in the "Big Bang".

The primordial example of the conversion of
massless light to massive atomic matter occurred via weak force
symmetry-breaking during the "Big Bang" - the creation of our
"matter only" cosmos - presumably by the asymmetric weak force
decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks. (See: "The Origin of
Matter and Information"; see:

"The Higgs Boson
and the Weak Force IVBs".) While the raw energy of light
was stored in the mass and momentum of (matter-only) particles,
the symmetry of light was stored in the alternative and
conserved form of charges (see S - CI below), and the entropy of
light was stored in the alternative form of time and gravitation
(see E - CI below).

Charge conservation is an alternative means of
conserving symmetry and extending the conservation function into
the time or historic dimension (in contrast to the inertial
forces of the spacetime metric, which also conserve symmetry,
but which have no mechanism allowing deferment in time) - just
the difference between a credit card and a cash payment . *The
charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.*

**Information** is conserved as
charge, and in historic spacetime (as matter's "causal matrix")
- upholding the "Universal Present Moment" of bound energy (with
a universal network of causal relations). Because of gravity,
the location of all bound energy forms is recorded by the
warpage of spacetime; because of the charge of the neutrino, the
identity and number of every elementary particle is known; and
because of the causal linkages of time, every "event" is
immortalized in historic spacetime - the conservation domain of
information and matter's "causal matrix". The Universe is indeed
a dimensional, entropic conservation domain for information and
electromagnetic energy in all its forms. (See: "A Spacetime Map
of the Universe".)

Because certain types of symmetry can be
conserved through time in the form of charge, matter can have an
historical (and necessarily causal) dimension, unlike light
which bears no charges and is both a-temporal and a-causal.
Unlike raw energy and entropy debts, which must be paid
immediately, symmetry debts (when in the form of conserved
charges), constitute the "credit card" of the Cosmos - "buy now,
pay later". Gravity pays the "interest" on the symmetry debt of
matter through the deceleration of the cosmic expansion via the
gravitational conversion of space to time (converting spatial to
temporal entropy - the intrinsic motion of light to the
intrinsic motion of time). It is therefore the entropy drive of
free electromagnetic energy (light) and the expansion of space
which (through gravity) funds the entropy drive of bound
electromagnetic energy (matter) and the expansion of history.
The charges of matter (symmetry debts) are eventually paid by
matter-antimatter annihilations, the conversion of bound energy
to free energy in stars, supernovas, quasars, and Hawking's
"quantum radiance" of black holes, and by particle and proton
decay. Charge conservation, like the historical entropy drive
(time's intrinsic motion) and the conversion of free energy to
mass (h*v* = mcc), gives the Universe a life in the
historical domain, in which energy can be converted to work,
information, and material objects with relative rather than
absolute motion, and yet all conservation laws are nevertheless
observed. (See: "Global vs Local
Gauge Symmetry and the 'Tetrahedron Model'".)

The Information domain is unique in that the
universe can explore and expand this domain almost without
limit, especially in the realm of biology. In humans, the cosmos
seems to be building a co-creator, capable of making artificial
universes in his head, his books and movies, his computers. Who
knows where this will eventually lead (think Star Trek), but the
Information Domain is definitely the creative center of the
universe. We may be sure that planet Earth is not the only locus
of this universal creative energy, which we may rightfully
regard as sacred.

**Charge:** the creation of fermions
(quarks, leptons, neutrinos, and their charges) by
symmetry-breaking during the "Big Bang".

Fermions are the surviving matter half of light's
particle-antiparticle form: charge conservation ensures that
their symmetry debts, held through time as invariant charges,
will eventually be repaid. Charge conservation = symmetry
conservation in the time dimension (hence the cardinal
importance of charge invariance, with all the local gauge
symmetry currents and forces required for its maintenance). *The
charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light* -
(Noether's Theorem). Charge conservation is a temporal form of
symmetry conservation - made possible by the creation of the
historical domain through the gravitational conversion of space
to time. Fermions comprise the 92 naturally occurring elements,
the information base of matter, created in the "Big Bang" and by
the nucleosynthetic pathway in stars (and supernovas). Charges
are held in the time or historical dimension where they are
balanced or neutralized until they can be annihilated or
otherwise canceled by their corresponding antimatter charges.
Charge conservation is moot in the absence of a time dimension,
as the mutual annihilations of virtual particle-antiparticle
pairs attests.

This line (in the "Tetrahedron Model") is essentially the linkage between Causality and the source of Information, as Information (in the form of charge) is primarily supplied from the Symmetry pole, beginning with fermions, atoms, and charge conservation. In the chain of cause and effect, information must always be associated with the purely reactionary or mechanical aspects of the causal linkage - what, exactly, is the cause, and what, exactly, is the consequent effect? In the classic notion of "Karma", the linkage of cause and effect with information is implicit: both the criminal and the crime are known, and "the punishment must fit the crime". Information is by its very nature asymmetric and begins with charge. The gravitational "location" charge of bound energy, and the "identity" or weak force "number" (or "flavor") charges of elementary particles (carried in their explicit form by neutrinos), are with electric charge among the most fundamental charges of matter. Charges produce forces (carried by "field vectors" or "bosons") which act to pay the symmetry debts of atomic matter. Exactly what symmetries of light these charges represent and conserve is discussed in the paper "Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory", among others.

Symmetry-breaking is necessary during the "Big
Bang" to extract a residue of matter from the otherwise
symmetric virtual particle "sea". Virtual particles (when not
bound to an atom or other massive particle) do not exist in real
time and hence do not produce a gravitational field (see: "Does Light
Produce a Gravitational Field?"). Free virtual particles
become manifest ("real", massive, temporal) as *single
particles* (not particle-antiparticle pairs) only through
the mediation of the weak force
Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs). Acting in concert, the
"Tetrahedron" of conservation principles allows the conversion
of free energy to the mass, 4th dimension, and information of
particles (bound energy, causal and entropic time, charge). But
the weak force must still produce an asymmetry between particle
vs antiparticle before the symmetry of the primordial pairs can
be broken, isolating matter from antimatter, a "divorce" so
difficult it has only happened once, during the extraordinary
energy/heat of the "Big Bang". (See: "The Origin of
Matter and Information".)

Charge conservation and atomic matter form the
base of the "information pyramid". Most information originates
in the atomic nucleus, but is vastly amplified in the chemical
interactions, combinations, and permutations of the electron
shells of atoms. (See: "The Information
Ladder" and "
The Information Pathway".) Molecular biologic information
is carried by DNA and genes; symbolic information is carried by
language and human writing, including math, music, and machine
language, etc.

The gravitational charge is complex in that it
represents a double debt, one of entropy (intrinsic motion), and
one of symmetry (immobile concentrations of mass-energy), both
consequent upon the loss of light's intrinsic motion and
non-local distributional symmetry (lost whenever free
electromagnetic energy is converted to bound electromagnetic
energy). (See: "The
Double Conservation Role of Gravitation".) Due to the
mixture of the entropy debt with the symmetry debt, the latter
cannot be deferred in time; gravity can never be neutralized,
unlike electric charge. Hence we see the gravitational debt
being paid or satisfied in two modes, which it is convenient to
think of as a payment of: 1) "interest", occurring at all
gravitational energies (entropy debt - intrinsic motion, the
gravitational conversion of space to time - as on planet Earth),
and a payment of: 2) "principle", occurring only at high
gravitational energies (symmetry debt - immobile mass, the
gravitational conversion of bound to free energy - as in the sun
and stars).

Gravity pays the "interest" on the symmetry/entropy debt of matter by the conversion of space to time, creating an historical domain and a temporal entropy drive for matter and its charges. This action, however, only addresses the entropy debt (intrinsic motion), and does not diminish the actual symmetry debt of matter (immobile mass - as in the familiar case of planet Earth), hence the analogy with "interest". The spatial expansion of the Cosmos is reduced nevertheless, supplying energy for the historical expansion. Therefore it is ultimately the intrinsic motion of light, the primordial entropy drive of free energy, which (through gravity) funds the intrinsic motion of time, the primordial entropy drive of bound energy. Gravity finally pays the "principle" on matter's symmetry/entropy debt by converting bound to free energy in stars, and by various other astrophysical processes, which go to completion in Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. The gravitational force vanishes when mass vanishes - demonstrating the final repayment of the symmetry/entropy debt "principle", in complete satisfaction of Noether's Theorem. (See: "A Description of Gravitation".)

The "intrinsic" information inherently contained in free electromagnetic energy (light), and in the spacetime light creates, is expressed as the dimensional metric with its derivative, entropic regulatory gauges c, T, and G, and as the inertial forces conserving energy and symmetry, and finally as the "particle metric", the structural property of spacetime determining the species and masses of particles (virtual and real), charges, and force carriers that the "vacuum" is prepared to host, produce, and conserve (including the scaling property of the "particle mass gauge" or "Higgs" boson).

The realized possibilities we see in our Universe for quantized, bound energy forms are the 3 families of 4 elementary particles: 6 leptons and 6 quarks, and these determine the material parameters and characteristics of the Universe as we experience it (in our daily life, only 2 leptons and 2 quarks are found). The four dimensions of spacetime, the 3 energetic families each of 4 elementary particles, the four forces of physics, and the four major conservation laws, constitute the primary evidence of a 4x3 fractal algorithm inherent and operating in Nature, beginning with the electromagnetic "vacuum" of energized spacetime. This fractal algorithm is the fundamental and resonant "bit" or "Word" of Cosmic Information diagrammatically and symbolically represented by the "Tetrahedron Model". (See also: "Nature's Fractal Pathway"; "The Information Pathway"; and "The Fractal Organization of Nature".)

**E-CI)**
The connection between Entropy (expressed as the intrinsic
motion of matter's time dimension) and Causality-Information
(the cause-and-effect relations of mass-matter). Gravity,
negative entropy, the "warping" of spacetime by the
gravitational conversion of space to time.

Inertial forces, gravitation, and metric symmetry conservation are also linked through Einstein's "Equivalence Principle". The spherical symmetry of gravitational force, required by energy conservation, is also an example of this association.

This line represents gravity and the
gravitational metric when energy is in the form of mass,
entropy is in the form of time, and symmetry is in the form of
charge. Inertial forces maintain metric symmetry, for which
"velocity c" is the gauge. "Velocity c" gauges both the
entropy drive and the distributional symmetry of light and the
spacetime metric; gravitation is both an entropy and a
symmetry debt of light's "non-local" character. Through this
dual association, gravitation is brought under the symmetry
conservation umbrella of Noether's
theorem. The "4 forces of physics" are thus unified by
the concept that their various resident charges *are all
symmetry debts of light*. In Hawking's "quantum radiance"
of black holes, we see the ultimate gravitational conservation
of light's symmetry, even including the conservation of the
symmetry of light's entropy drive. (See: "The Double
Conservation Role of Gravitation".)

In Einstein's theory, gravitation is the
"warpage", "curvature", or "acceleration" of this line (the
spacetime metric). It is the presence of one-way time
(matter's entropy drive) which "warps" the symmetry of the
spatial metric of light. Whereas "c" is the positive gauge of
the symmetric metric/entropic relation between light, space,
and (implicit) time, "G" is the negative gauge of the
asymmetric metric/entropic relation between mass, space, and
(explicit) time. (See: "Symmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory"; and "A Description
of Gravitation".) Einstein's "Interval", which measures
the invariant spacetime separation between any two events
(regardless of the relative motion of observers), will always
be greater than zero because of the presence of time, and
because massive objects cannot travel at "velocity c".

One of gravity's several conservation roles is
the creation of matter's historical entropy drive, time, by
the gravitational conversion of space to time. Conversely, *gravity
is the spatial consequence of time's intrinsic motion.*
The intrinsic motion of time and gravity induce each other in
an endless entropic loop. Time is the active principle of
gravity's "location" charge. Gravity provides a local,
temporal metric complete with entropy drive to service and
conserve the energy accounts of a local, massive, typically
immobile energy form, matter. When matter does move, it must
be motivated by an external force and moves with relative
rather than absolute motion. (See: "Entropy,
Thermodynamics, and Gravitation".)

Another conservation role of gravity, the conservation of light's "non-local" distributional and metric symmetry, is demonstrated by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy, as in stars, supernovas, quasars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Gravity converts space and the spatial entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of light) to time and the historical entropy drive of bound energy (the intrinsic motion of time), and vice-versa. Establishing and maintaining the causal relations of matter (creating time via the annihilation of space - entropy role), and conserving light's symmetric "non-local" energy state (converting bound to free energy in stars - symmetry role), are among the chief conservation roles and rationales for gravitation. The entropy and causality of bound energy are linked through the intrinsic motion of time just as the entropy and symmetry of free energy are linked through the intrinsic motion of light.

Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the
symmetry debt of matter by the annihilation of space and the
extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal residue. The
spatial expansion of the Cosmos decelerates as it is
gravitationally converted into the historical expansion of
spacetime. Thus it is the intrinsic motion of light and the
expansive, entropic energy of space which ultimately funds the
intrinsic motion of time and the expansive, entropic energy of
history. Gravity pays the energy "principle" of matter's
symmetry debt by converting bound to free energy in stars,
supernovas and quasars (partially), and in Hawking's "quantum
radiance" of black holes (completely). The gravitational force
vanishes when mass vanishes, demonstrating the completion of
gravity's symmetry conservation role, in complete satisfaction
of Noether's theorem. (See: "The Double
Conservation Role of Gravitation".) Gravity is the
conversion force (in either direction) operating between the
non-local, a-temporal (a-causal) symmetric ("all-way") entropy
drive and conservation domain of light and space (free EM
energy), and the local, temporal (causal) asymmetric ("one
way") entropy drive and conservation domain of matter and
history (bound EM energy).

**Causality:** the temporal sequence of
cause and effect (as regulated by the interdependence of time
and space in Special and General Relativity ("Lorentz
Invariance") - gauged by the invariant "velocity c" and
Einstein's similarly invariant "Interval").

Light is the causal messenger. Time is necessary to regulate
matter's raw energy accounts because matter's energy content
varies with its relative velocity. Think of the classic example
of breaking a rack of billiard balls with the cue ball on a pool
table. Time is necessary to regulate the orderly (and energy
conserving) transmission of momentum and kinetic energy from one
ball to the next. Massive matter is local, temporal, causal;
massless light is non-local, a-temporal, a-causal (think of
light bouncing/reflecting between two mirrors). Causality
(temporal linkage) is a necessary but not sufficient condition
allowing the conversion of free to bound energy. Light does not
require a time dimension because light's motion is invariant and
absolute, not relative; light's energy varies with its
frequency, not its motion. Time is also necessary to provide the
entropy drive of bound energy. Light is connected by space;
matter is connected by time; gravity connects all. (See also: "The Time Train".)

History is the temporal analog of space; both
are the creations of the intrinsic dimensional motions of their
entropy drives, time and light. Yesterday must remain real to
uphold the reality of today ("karma"). The causal relations of
matter and bound energy generally are a rationale for
time and gravity. Time is produced by the gravitational
annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically
equivalent temporal residue. Time is one-way due to the
requirements of causality, entropy, and hence energy
conservation. (See: "Gravity, Entropy,
and Thermodynamics".)

The energy required to create matter's 4th
dimension and entropy domain (history), is simply subtracted
from the entropy domain of light and space by the gravitational
conversion of space to time. The expansion of pure space is
gravitationally converted to the historical expansion of
spacetime, with the consequent deceleration of the spatial
expansion of the universe. However, this process is actually
opposed by the gravitational conversion of mass to light (paying
the symmetry debt - in stars, etc.), with the eventual net
consequence (as recently observed) that the universal expansion
actually accelerates (because converting mass to light reduces
the universal symmetry debt and hence also the universal
gravitational field). (See: "The
Conversion of Space to Time"; See: "Dark Energy:
Does Light Produce a Gravitational Field?")

Information is conserved permanently in the historic domain of spacetime (matter's causal web, net, field, or "matrix"), and conserved temporarily in the molecular genetic code of life, and symbolically through human agency (as in libraries). Time is a necessary dimensional parameter both to order information (as in abiotic cause and effect and in biotic development and evolution), to preserve information and matter's "causal matrix" through historic spacetime, and to produce the entropy drive of bound energy. Causality orders information just as it orders the spacetime metric and energy, providing evolutionary and developmental routes, abiotic and biotic, for the return of bound to free energy (symmetry conservation). Finally, time is the necessary dimensional parameter in which charge conservation has durable integrity - in terms of symmetry debt repayment, etc.

**Time, History, Historic Spacetime:** The
one-way (due to causality) temporal entropy drive of bound
energy, information, and matter's "causal matrix"; creating,
expanding, and aging historic spacetime (see: "The Time Train").
"Intrinsic motion T" is the metric and entropic equivalent of
"intrinsic motion c". (See: " Spatial vs
Temporal Entropy".) Time is created from space and/or the
collapse of an electromagnetic wave by two processes:

1) By the quantum mechanical switch ("collapse
of the wave function") from the space-like or "wavelength"
character of a freely moving electromagnetic wave, to the
time-like or "frequency" aspect of a particle or stationary
wave. Time is the *implicit* entropy drive of free energy
and the *explicit* entropy drive of bound energy. (see: "Gravity Diagram
No. 2" and: "The
Conversion of Space to Time").

2) By the gravitational annihilation of space with the consequent conversion of the primordial drive of spatial entropy (the intrinsic motion of light) (S), to the primordial drive of historical entropy (the intrinsic motion of time) (T). The entropic expansion of space is gravitationally converted to the entropic expansion of history, as symbolically represented in a quasi-mathematical "concept equation":

-Gm(S) = (T)m

-Gm(S) - (T)m = 0

History is the temporal analog of space, the dimensional entropic conservation domain of matter's causal/karmic information network. Historic spacetime is a 5th dimension, containing Information and matter's "causal matrix", the whole past and evolutionary history of the entire Cosmos. (Time and our own history is a 4th dimension; adding up the historical timelines of the entire universe constitutes a 5th dimension.) (See: "A Spacetime Map of the Universe"; see also: "The Spacetime Map as a Model of Juan Maldacena's 5-Dimensional Holographic Cosmos".)

Aging and the expansion (dilution) of history is due to the positive entropy drive of time, affecting all material elements. Proton decay and black holes are the ultimate form of temporal or information entropy. The entropic march of time creates the historic conservation domain of Information at "right angles" to all three spatial dimensions, conserving matter's "causal matrix". It is only matter's causal matrix that sustains the reality of the "present moment" everywhere in the Cosmos. Today (the "effect") is real only because yesterday (the "cause") remains real in historic spacetime. Our past is some other observer's present, and vice versa. We are all immortal in history. (See also: "Proton Decay and the 'Heat Death' of the Cosmos".)

The "infinite" velocities of both time and light (the entropic drives of bound and free energy) constitute entropy's guarantee to energy conservation that violations of the spacetime domain by "time machine" or fast space ship are impossible. Velocities "T" and "c" are metric equivalents, sealing the borders of their respective conservation domains (history and space). The intrinsic motions of time and light establish and also protect their dimensional conservation/entropy domains. Gravity performs the same protective function through the "event horizon" and central "singularity" of black holes, where g = c and light and time stand still. In a black hole, gravity assumes the protective functions of both c and T as it takes over their entropic roles, just as gravity assumes the binding functions of the atomic and nuclear forces. In the black hole, the gravitational metric performs locally all functions that were formerly performed globally by the electromagnetic metric. (See: "Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".)

In contradistinction to light, which is indistinguishable from its entropy drive (the intrinsic motion of light), and inseparable from its conservation domain (space), matter is distinct from its entropy drive (the intrinsic motion of time), and separate from its conservation domain (history). (See: "The Time Train".) Matter's time dimension moves but matter itself does not; nor does matter participate in the expansion of its entropic conservation domain, history. The tangential relation between matter, time, and history prevents the inflation, or attrition, of the value of charge by matter's entropy drive and hence the devaluation of the symmetry debts those charges represent (charge invariance = charge conservation = symmetry conservation). There is no cosmological "red shift" for charge.

The preservation of the value of symmetry debts through time and regardless of the expansion of the Cosmos and the action of entropy, provides a conservation rationale both for the quantization of charge and for the otherwise anomalous separation of matter from its entropy drive, time, and its conservation domain, history. Note in this regard that light, which is united with its entropy drive and expands with its entropy domain, carries no charges of any kind.

The tangential relation between matter and its historic domain (experienced as the ephemeral "present moment"), is due to the fact that the time dimension has intrinsic motion but matter does not. Nevertheless, the separation of matter from its temporal entropy drive and the historic conservation domain of information is not sufficient to completely protect the invariance of charge (and hence charge and symmetry conservation), or the invariance of the "Interval" (and hence causality and energy conservation), from local effects in the present moment such as relative motion, the partial charges of the quarks, or the hidden, implicit "identity" charges of the weak force. To protect charge invariance in these local, variable, and relative conditions, extra help is needed in the form of magnetism, time ("Lorentz Invariance"), the gluon field, and the massive weak force IVBs with their associated "Higgs boson". (See: "Global and Local Gauge Symmetries in the Tetrahedron Model".)

Another, perhaps equally important reason (at least from an "anthropic" perspective) for the separation of matter from its entropy drive and historic domain, is to preserve the energy content of matter in an undiluted form so that it can perform the evolutionary work of the Cosmos - as in the slow release of matter's energy content by our Sun. Whereas the energy of light is rapidly vitiated by its intrinsic motion, "diamonds are forever"; atoms simply do not age, at least by human standards. Given the absence of antimatter, strong gravitational fields and proton decay are the only threats to the proton's lifetime or the permanence of matter.

The physical, "tangential" separation of matter from its entropy drive and historic conservation domain is the fundamental reason for the weakness of gravity - and for humanity's "angst" regarding our tenuous connection to the Cosmos. (Gravity is weak because only a small amount of space need be converted to time per given mass (-Gm(S) = (T)m) to provide the temporal entropy drive for the tiny tangential connection (consisting of the ephemeral "present moment") between matter and its historic entropy domain. This is actually commensurate with P. A. M. Dirac's observation that the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to the electromagnetic force is the same as the ratio of the radius of an electron to the radius of the universe - if we take the radius of the electron as equivalent to the tangential point of contact between the "present moment" and the cosmic continuum of historic spacetime. (See: "The Half-Life of Proton Decay and the 'Heat Death' of the Cosmos".)

**Postscript:
An Antimatter Model **

If we add a fifth apex to the "Tetrahedron Model", directly opposite the causal vertex and projecting backward rather than forward from the plane of the paper and the free energy "base" of the tetrahedron figure, we create a diagram of two tetrahedra which share a common free energy base, a six-sided hexahedron. I have begun to think this is a suitable representation for the combined realm of matter-antimatter. Note that there is no direct connection between the two Causal or Information (matter-antimatter) vertices - they are insulated from each other by the free energy base (essentially neutral light), so they avoid an immediate annihilation reaction, although their opposite charges (the doubled set of "internal" lines) will soon pull them back together and cause an annihilation, leaving nothing but the original "trinity" base of light, an expanding spacetime metric, and virtual particles. The oscillation, or inflation and collapse, of the 3-D hexahedron crystal with its 2-D free energy "trinity" base, exactly expresses the creation and annihilation cycle of particle-antiparticle pairs with the light which creates them.

It is to be noted that it is only possible to add a single (fourth) point to the "trinity base" of the tetrahedron, and still have all model points directly connected one to another; this to me expresses the essential fact of the cohesion and unitary character of the tetrahedron (diamond) crystal and of the spiritual-material Universe, and why the Anti-universe cannot coexist with it. The physical assumption is that there is some difference in the time lines of the two tetrahedra that prevents their exact reciprocal alignment, and thus allows a matter residue to remain after otherwise mutual annihilation reactions.

See also the two papers: "Information vs Causality" and "Section 14: Causality".

email:

jag8@cornell.edu

johngowan@earthlink.net

home page (page 1)

home page (page 2)

E-Book

**References**

**Readings**

Tetrahedron Model Diagrams: "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

See: Diagram of the Universe of Light

See: Diagram of the Universe of Matter