**THE DOUBLE CONSERVATION ROLE
OF GRAVITY: ENTROPY VS SYMMETRY**

(revised June, 2014)

JOHN A. GOWAN

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**Note to Readers Concerning
"Entropy":**

See: "Spatial vs
Temporal Entropy"

The primordial conservation role of gravity is to provide negative energy sufficient to exactly balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the universe can be born from a state of zero net energy as well as zero net charge (the latter due to the equal admixture of matter with antimatter). All subsequent conservation roles of gravity are secondary to and derived from this original creation-role. (Negative energy is created by the collapse (rather than expansion) of spacetime and by the explicit presence of the time dimension.)

Following on from its primary role of providing
negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further
major conservation roles in the evolving universe:

1) Conserving light's spatial entropy drive (light's intrinsic
motion), which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion
of space to time - converting light's intrinsic motion to time's
intrinsic motion. (See: "The
Conversion of Space to Time".) The circle comes full in stars where mass-matter is
gravitationally converted to light.

2) Conserving the non-local distributional symmetry of
light's energy, which is also accomplished by the gravitational
conversion of bound to free energy in stars, supernovas,
quasars, (partially), and (completely) in Hawking's "quantum
radiance" of black holes. (See: "Extending
Einstein's "Equivalence Principle".)

This double conservation role (entropy/symmetry)
is consequent upon Noether's Theorem
and the double gauge role of "velocity c", which simultaneously
regulates the entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic
spatial motion of light), and the non-local distributional
symmetry of light's energy (vanishing time and the x (distance)
spatial dimension). The entropy conservation role operates at
all gravitational energy levels, while the symmetry conservation
role must reach an energetic threshold before nuclear fusion can
begin (in stellar interiors).

Noether's Theorem requires the conservation of light's various
symmetries: *the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of
light*. Charge conservation = symmetry conservation. All
massive, immobile particles (bound electromagnetic energy) bear a
gravitational "location" charge (-Gm) which represents the
"non-local" distributional, metric, and entropic symmetry debt of
the freely moving light (free electromagnetic energy) which
created them. (See: "The Connection
Between Gravitation, Time, Entropy, and Symmetry".)

At all energies, gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of matter by converting space to time, thus providing an alternative entropic domain in which charge conservation can have a deferred historical and causal meaning. At high energy levels (as in stars), gravity also begins to pay the "principle" on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound to free energy (vanishing the gravitational field as mass is vanished). The universal spatial expansion is reduced by the initial entropic conversion, as space is converted to time; the original expansion is restored, however, when mass is converted to light, reducing the total gravitational field energy and producing the impression of an "accelerating" universe. "Dark energy" is therefore simply the reduction of the cosmic gravitational field by the conversion of bound to free energy in stars or by any symmetry conservation/restoration process (which may also be operating in "dark matter").

*The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light* (Noether's Theorem)
(see: "
Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory"), but
unlike the other charges and their associated forces, gravity and
its "location" charge carries both a symmetry and an entropy debt
of light. This double debt accounts for most of the mystery
surrounding the role and activity of gravitation. Both debts are
paid simultaneously by the conversion of mass to light, as in the
stars, supernovas, quasars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of
black holes.

The origin of gravity's double conservation role stems from two conservation roles of the electromagnetic constant, "c", which, among other regulatory functions (such as maintaining metric symmetry), gauges both the "non-local" spatial distributional symmetry of light, and the spatial entropy drive of light (the intrinsic motion of light). The intrinsic motion of light creates, expands, and cools space (entropy role), while also establishing light's "non-local" symmetric energy state, including the symmetric distribution of light's energy throughout space, the latter accomplished by the vanishing of time and distance (x, t) (symmetry role). As Einstein discovered, clocks stop and meter sticks shrink to nothing at velocity c - light is a 2-dimensional transverse wave. Light's intrinsic motion (entropy drive) sweeps out a 3rd spatial dimension. Space is the energetic, entropic, and symmetric conservation domain of light, created for itself by the intrinsic motion of light.

When free energy is transformed into bound energy, gravity records the symmetry (and entropy) loss of light's intrinsic motion and non-local distribution (via gravity's "location" charge) - as required by Noether's Theorem. The active, entropic principle of gravity's "location" charge is time, a charge with intrinsic dimensional motion.

"Velocity c" also acts as the gauge of metric symmetry and
equivalency, establishing the metric relationship within and
between the dimensions (one second of temporal duration is
metrically equivalent to 300,000 kilometers of linear distance =
"velocity c"). Furthermore, c acts as the gauge of the energetic
equivalency between free and bound energy: E = h*v*
(Einstein-Planck), E = mcc (Einstein), h*v *= mcc
(deBroglie). Finally, c is the gauge of the electromagnetic force,
electric charge, causality, the "Interval", and the transmission
of information. "Velocity c" is not an actual "velocity" at all,
but rather a regulatory gauge of many related conservation
functions concerning electromagnetic energy and the
electromagnetic force.

The linkage between "causality" and "locality" is crucial to any understanding of the basis for gravitation. Gravity's time charge is required by energy conservation because immobile mass-matter is "local and causal": not only does matter require time to service its variable energy accounts (due to local relative motion), but matter also requires temporal linkages between all events to maintain the order of cause and effect ("causal chains" - "karma"). Time identifies the 4-dimensional location of matter, setting in motion the gravitational field or collapse of space, which energetically and metrically (dimensionally) records the spacetime position, quantity, and density of bound energy (symmetry role). Time endlessly renews itself from the temporal residue of the annihilated space, creating matter's historical entropy drive and historic spacetime, the conservation domain of matter's causal information web or "matrix" (entropy role). (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".) Light requires no temporal dimension because being non-local, light is also a-causal. Because the temporal entropy drive is also part of energy conservation and causality, we have to acknowledge four conservation roles for gravitation: energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry. (See: "The Tetrahedron Model".)

The intrinsic (entropic) motion of matter's time charge (moving into matter's historic domain or causal information field - at right angles to all three spatial dimensions) creates a gravitational field, which eventually collects enough matter (as in stars) to initiate nucleosynthesis and begin converting mass back to light, repaying simultaneously both the entropy and symmetry debt ("interest" and "principle") of light's lost "non-local" energy state. This double conservation role of gravity is not evident on Earth, where gravity only creates our planet's time dimension (entropy, causality, and energy conservation), having not yet accumulated enough matter in Earth to ignite the nuclear fires and initiate symmetry conservation. Entropy, energy, and causality conservation is gravity's primary role (the creation of time from space); symmetry conservation is gravity's secondary, but ultimate role (the conversion of mass to light). (See: "Entropy, Gravity, and Thermodynamics".)

In our Sun (for example), both reactions go on simultaneously: gravity creates the Sun's time dimension by annihilating space, and yet creates new space by converting mass to light, a conversion which actually reverses the metric effect of the first reaction, reducing the Sun's gravitational field as it reduces the Sun's mass. This reciprocal gravitational action is possible simultaneously only because the first reaction is purely metric (entropy conservation) while the second involves particles (symmetry conservation). They do interfere with each other to some extent, resulting in a standoff between the gravitational force of compression and the radiative force of expansion - a seesaw battle between the symmetry and entropy conservation roles of gravitation whose final resolution (in favor of symmetry) is expressed through Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. (See: "A Description of Gravitation".)

I use the financial metaphor of "interest" payments on a debt for the entropy-conserving role of gravity, since the conversion of space to time (the dynamic on our planet Earth, for example) does nothing to reduce the actual gravitational field of the Earth. The symmetry conservation role of gravity, however, which I compare to the paying-down of the "principal" of a debt, (the dynamic on our Sun, for example), actually does reduce the total gravitational field of the Sun because mass is converted to light: the latter does not produce a gravitational field. This is one of the more confusing aspects of gravitation, in that it appears to be playing different roles at different energy levels - it manifests in different ways at different scales of phenomena. Let us examine these roles - as best we can - in sequence, beginning with the smallest.

**Part II: A Hierarchy of Gravitational Effects**

** A) (atoms)** At the microscopic or
quantum-mechanical level, we have the initial (non-gravitational)
production of time from space as a consequence of the collapse of
a free electromagnetic wave to a bound energy form. "Frequency"
multiplied by "wavelength" = c, the electromagnetic constant, the
"velocity of light". Even though light has no time or distance
dimension (x, t), both time ("frequency") and space ("wavelength")
are implicitly present in the formulation or composition of an
electromagnetic wave (light). The wave itself contains an *implicit*
temporal element expressed as "frequency", which switches to an *
explicit* condition when the wave collapses, revealing the
entropic time "charge" of bound energy. The collapse is a
transition from the spatial, "wavelength", and symmetric
expression of free electromagnetic energy to the temporal,
"frequency", and asymmetric expression of bound electromagnetic
energy; a transition from the intrinsic motion (c) of light in
which "wavelength" is explicit, to the intrinsic motion (T) of
matter's time dimension in which "frequency" is explicit. This is
a transition from 2 to 4 dimensions, a transition from massless,
non-local, a-temporal, a-causal light to massive, local, temporal,
causal matter. The electromagnetic entropy "coin" flips from *implicit*
time and *explicit* space ("velocity c"), to *explicit*
time and *implicit* space ("velocity T"). (See: "The Conversion
of Space to Time" and "Gravity Diagram
No. 2".) This is a transition between the entropy gauges,
coefficients, or drives (c and T) associated with the free and
bound forms of electromagnetic energy, and the dimensional
conservation domains created by their intrinsic motions (space vs
history).

The capacity of electromagnetic energy to have both a free and bound expression in light and matter is also reflected in the dual nature of spacetime and its spatial vs historical entropy drives. Light, matter, space, and time are all creations of electromagnetic and gravitational energy.

Intrinsic *dimensional* motion is entropic motion (whether
positive as in expanding space and aging history, or negative as
in the collapsing space of a gravitational field). The dimensions
of spacetime are entropy domains, where both free and bound forms
of electromagnetic energy can exist together and be simultaneously
used and transformed, but nevertheless conserved.

The sign of "G" (the universal gravitational constant) is determined by the small energy difference between the symmetric spatial entropy drive (S) of light (the "all-way" intrinsic motion of light as gauged by "velocity c"), and the asymmetric historical entropy drive (T) of matter (the "one-way" intrinsic motion of matter's time dimension, as gauged by "velocity T"):

S - T = -G.

It takes energy to create a one-way historical entropy drive from an "all-way" spatial entropy drive, because an asymmetric, one-way temporal order must be created from and imposed upon the symmetric, "all-way" spatial expansion. This entropy-energy cost of time is the origin of the "negative energy" characteristic of gravity and the negative sign of "-G". This cost is subtracted from the expansive entropy-energy of the Universe (via the gravitational annihilation of space), causing a deceleration of the spatial expansion of the Cosmos. (See: "Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".)

The intrinsic motion of light is actually due to the "hidden" or
implicit presence of time. Time is an embedded property of the
electromagnetic wave, implicit in "frequency", just as space is
implicit in "wavelength". Wavelength multiplied by frequency = c:
the gauge of the intrinsic motion or "velocity of light". But what
is the source of light's "intrinsic" (self-motivated) motion?
Symmetry conservation is ultimately responsible for the intrinsic
motion of light, which is caused by wavelength "fleeing"
frequency, which however, is an asymmetric aspect of light's own
nature, the classic "bur under the saddle". The symmetric aspect
of the wave ("wavelength" - space) is actually "fleeing" the
asymmetric aspect embedded in the same wave ("frequency" - time).
Only by constant motion at velocity c can light suppress the
embedded asymmetric element of time. "Wavelength" flees into the
third dimension, escaping implicit time which exists as
"frequency" embedded in the 2-dimensional transverse waveform of
light. Hence light remains symmetric via its entropy function,
that is, by creating, expanding, and cooling space. Intrinsic
motion "velocity c" is just a symmetry condition (or "gauge",
regulator) of free energy, maintaining light's massless,
non-local, a-temporal, and a-causal symmetric energy state. In the
intrinsic motion of light we glimpse the seamless intertwining of
four fundamental physical principles: energy conservation,
symmetry conservation, entropy, causality. (See: "The Tetrahedron
Model".)

When light stops moving and becomes bound energy, its non-local
spatio-temporal symmetry is lost; time becomes explicit because
bound energy, being local, requires the time dimension to
establish and maintain its causal and relative energetic relations
for reasons of energy conservation mentioned above. Causality
requires time to be one-way; entropy requires time, like light, to
move with an effectively "infinite" velocity.

Light is a 2-dimensional transverse wave with one dimension each
for its electric and magnetic fields, but no time dimension and no
distance dimension in the direction of propagation (the spatial,
entropic dimension). Consequently, light has forever to go
nowhere, resulting in light's "infinite" velocity and "non-local"
character. Again we see that "velocity c" is no velocity at all,
but rather a symmetry and entropy gauge, coefficient, or
regulating constant. Hence to move at "velocity c" you must become
massless, like light.

Symmetry conservation requires a gravitational response to the presence of matter, an undistributed (asymmetric) concentration of immobile, "massive" bound energy, the consequence of light's lost "non-local" distributional and metric symmetry. The gravitational extraction of time from space ensures that the intrinsic motions of light and time are entropic as well as metric equivalents, allowing light and matter to interact freely within their shared dimensional conservation domain of spacetime. (See: "A Description of Gravitation".)

** B) (planets)** At the energy level
or scale of planet Earth, gravity is in its entropic, causal, and
energy conservation role only, creating Earth's time dimension and
causally linking our expanding historic domain with the rest of
cosmic spacetime. Time is fully incorporated into and linked with
ordinary space because it is created directly from space. The
historic domain (the past), remains linked to the present by
causality, and by the gravitational linkage between space and
time. Spacetime is visible in our great telescopes as we look out
to distant galaxies and see their historic past unfold before us -
just as they see our past unrolling before them. The intrinsic
motion or expansive entropic drive of light is also visible as the
cosmological "redshift" of the distant galaxies and expanding
spacetime. Light is connected by space, matter is connected by
time; gravity connects space and light with time and matter,
converting the spatial entropy drive of light's intrinsic motion
to the historical entropy drive of time's intrinsic motion - and
vice-versa. (See: "A Spacetime Map
of the Universe".)

**C) (stars)** At the energy level or
scale of the stars, the symmetry conservation role of gravity
comes into play, simultaneously with its entropic, temporal role.
At the stellar energy level, gravity lights the thermonuclear
fires of the nucleosynthetic pathway and begins converting mass to
light, bound energy to free energy. Here for the first time we see
that gravity is doing more than creating time and the historic
domain; gravity is also conserving symmetry, in particular, the
non-local symmetric energy state of light. The only way to get rid
of gravity is to convert mass to light - since light (having no
time dimension) has no gravitational field. The gravitational
field of the Sun is reduced as gravity converts the Sun's mass
into free energy, which is radiated away to be used by plants on
Earth to fuel the negentropic engine of life and evolution. (See:
"'Dark
Energy': Does Light Produce a Gravitational Field"?)

From this we see directly that symmetry conservation is actually
the ultimate "goal" of gravity, since gravity will not vanish
until it fulfills this role; similarly, we can say that symmetry
conservation is also the most fundamental role of entropic time,
since time vanishes when bound energy and gravity vanish. *A
gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic
motion of time. *

Einstein thought that "gravity gravitates" (the energy content of a gravitational field itself produces more gravity). Since a gravitational field is caused by the intrinsic motion of time, and time is also the active principle of gravity's "location" charge, while the "graviton" is a quantum unit of time, we can understand the basis for this notion. Be that as it may, the same consideration does not apply to light, which has no time dimension. Light has no mass and produces no gravitational field (when traveling freely in "vacuum" or spacetime) - contrary to the views of (some of) the "establishment". Being a non-local energy form, light cannot provide a spacetime center for a gravitational field, and an uncentered gravitational field is a violation of energy conservation.

We note the sequence: *s**ymmetry conservation*
(manifesting through the intrinsic motion of light - and the
electrical annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs)
maintains the massless, non-local, a-temporal, and a-causal nature
of free electromagnetic energy. *Symmetry-breaking* converts
free energy into immobile, massive, bound forms of electromagnetic
energy. Due to the requirements of energy conservation and
entropy, as well as the causal requirements of bound energy, and
due to the local, asymmetric distribution of mass in spacetime -
energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry conservation all demand
that the time dimension (always implicitly present in space) must
become explicit. This conservation demand is satisfied by the
quantum-mechanical "flipping" of the electromagnetic entropy
"coin" (wave vs particle), transforming time from its implicit to
its explicit expression (see: "Gravity Diagram
No. 2"). This quantum-mechanical "switch" establishes the
time charge, and seamlessly merges into the gravitational version
of charge conservation: the gravitational charge is "location",
whose active principle is time. Hence "location" charge has an
entropic character, with intrinsic dimensional motion. Whereas the
charges of the other forces are only symmetry debts of light, the
gravitational "location" charge is both an entropy and a symmetry
debt of light (supplying the connection between Quantum Mechanics
and General Relativity). The explicit, intrinsic motion of time
(into 4-D history) brings gravity into being; through the
gravitational annihilation of space, time maintains itself and
creates the causal linkage of the ephemeral "present moment" to
the cosmic domain of historic spacetime. Gravity conserves
symmetry by returning bound energy to free energy (as in the
stars, supernovas, quasars, and the "quantum radiance" of black
holes), completing the circle of symmetry and entropy
conservation. (See: "Currents of
Entropy and Symmetry".) Note that light "escapes" into a
third spatial dimension to create its own entropic conservation
domain, whereas time "escapes" into a 4th historical dimension to
create its own entropic conservation domain. The dimensions of
spacetime are entropic conservation domains created by the
"intrinsic" (entropic) motions of light and time.

**D) (black holes)** At the energy level
or scale of the black hole, we find space accelerated to velocity
c, at the black hole's "event horizon", so that in effect, gravity
succeeds in returning bound energy to light's velocity, but in a
backhanded way that only Einstein's "Equivalence Principle" could
love. Was this gravity's "purpose" from the beginning? We think
not, since the field does not vanish at g = c (the black hole does
not "swallow" its external gravitational field). Similarly, we
expect that proton decay is so common inside the event horizon
that black holes are filled with nothing but trapped light,
solving the problem of the infinite compressibility of matter at
the central "singularity". Even proton decay, however, does not
seem to fulfill the original purpose of gravitation, because again
the field does not vanish in the special case of locally trapped
and gravitationally bound light. Nevertheless, with space (and
matter) accelerating at velocity c outside the hole, and matter
converted to trapped light inside the hole, gravity is
tantalizingly close to fulfilling its symmetry conservation goal.
Finally, in the phenomenon of Hawking's "quantum radiance", we
find the complete fulfillment of all gravity's conservation roles,
in which the entire mass of the black hole is converted to free
energy and radiated away, vanishing time and the gravitational
field in the process. In this final reaction we also see the
conservation of the symmetry of light's entropy - the black hole
is pure temporal entropy, but being one-way, temporal entropy has
less symmetry than spatial entropy, which is "all-ways". Hence the
conservation of the symmetry of light's entropy drive is another
rationale for Hawking's "quantum radiance", the ultimate
gravitational expression and fulfillment of Noether's Theorem.
(See: Bekenstein, J. D. "Information in the Holographic Universe".
Scientific American, Aug. 2003 P. 58-65.)

In the "quantum radiance" of a black hole, we once again find
matter-antimatter annihilation reactions responsible for the
conversion of the hole's bound energy to light (via virtual
particle-antiparticle pairs created near the hole's event horizon
by the extreme tidal effects of the intense gravitational field).
So it appears that the symmetry conservation goal of gravity is
always to form a black hole, because only in this way can matter
finally be brought together with, and be annihilated by,
antimatter. Another way to view "quantum radiance" is as the
direct conversion of matter into the positive energy and entropy
drive of light, by the interaction of the spacetime metric with a
high-energy gravitational field - the exact reverse of the
original reaction between high-energy light and the spacetime
metric which created matter in the "Big Bang". In both cases the
spacetime metric is the source of the particles, which must be
precise copies of one another. (See: "The Origin of
Matter and Information".)

The question posed to the Cosmos after the creation of matter in the Big Bang is precisely this: how can the asymmetric residue of matter be returned to the symmetric energy state of light in the absence of antimatter? Gravity has the answer to this question in the "quantum radiance" of black holes, and the gravitational creation and capture of matter-antimatter particle pairs directly from the spacetime metric - perhaps reprising the "creation event" when g = c - in much the same way as the weak force IVBs reprise the "Big Bang" electroweak era energy density when creating single, new elementary particles. In the gravitational case, the mass of the black hole is in the role of the mass of the IVB, and both produce single elementary particles which must be exactly the same as those originally created during the "Big Bang", lest symmetry and energy conservation be violated. When g = c, gravity takes over the role of all the other forces (the gravitational temporal metric completely replaces the electromagnetic spatial metric), even including the creation of single elementary particles by the weak force.

The planets and stars are just way-stations along gravity's journey toward the black hole, the gravitational creation of antimatter, and "quantum radiance". We also see that in the final annihilation, as in the initial creation, the metric structure of spacetime plus energy is the source of particles. It seems, therefore, that in the black hole, gravity is simply returning the material system to some sort of initial symmetry state to recover the original source of antimatter. This is actually similar to the strategy employed by the weak force IVBs when (by means of their great mass) they recapitulate the energy density of the Electroweak Era unified-force symmetric energy state of the "Big Bang", in order to accomplish transformations of leptons and baryons (again, by means of particle-antiparticle pairs extracted from the spacetime metric or the Dirac/Heisenberg virtual vacuum "particle sea"). (See: "The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs".)

**E) (galaxies)** At the galactic level
we have the mystery of "dark matter", which is evidently necessary
to account for the observed gravitational binding with respect to
the large rotational velocities of stars in galaxies, and likewise
with respect to the rapid movements of galaxies relative to each
other. No one knows what this dark matter might be, but it may
consist of unknown massive neutrinos (the leptoquark neutrino?),
exotic elementary particles (supersymmetry, strings?), or possibly
small black holes or other gravitational or "metric" particles
originating in the "Big Bang". There may also be something wrong
with our understanding of the gravitational field laws at very
large scales ("MOND"). "Dark matter" remains a major outstanding
mystery in physics, astronomy, and cosmology. (My own view favors
a very heavy leptoquark neutrino. See: "The Origin of
Matter and Information".)

**F) (cosmos)** At the energy level or
scale of the Cosmos, gravity reduces the expansion rate of the
Universe, annihilating space, and in the process converts space
and the drive of spatial entropy into metric equivalents of time
and the drive of historical entropy. Hence the spatial expansion
of the Cosmos provides the energy for the expansion of the
historic domain of matter. Here we see the mediating role of
gravitation as the force which both converts and conserves the
primordial drives of entropy (the intrinsic motions of light and
time) in either form or direction. As the stars radiate their mass
away, we can expect a small acceleration of the Cosmic expansion
over the life of the Universe (if "dark matter" also converts
bound to free energy by any process, this effect will be
magnified). The "dark energy" or "cosmological constant" driving
the "accelerated" cosmic expansion is simply the consequence of
billions of years of constantly reducing the total gravitational
energy of the Cosmos via the conversion of mass to light. On the
other hand, if there is enough matter in the Universe, gravity
will cause the final collapse of the Cosmos in a "Big Crunch".
This will (perhaps) result in a new "Big Bang" when there is no
more space left from which to create matter's time dimension, and
the gravitational containment of light trapped in a cosmic-mass
black hole will fail. Current observational data suggest, however,
that the Universe will continue to expand forever. (See: "The Connection
Between Inflation and the 'Big Crunch'"; and see: "A Spacetime Map
of the Universe".)

On the Cosmic scale, the gravitational conversion of space and the drive of spatial entropy (S) (the expansive property of space, originating with light's intrinsic motion) to time and the drive of historical entropy (T) (the expansive property of history, originating with time's intrinsic motion), can be represented by a (quasi-mathematical) "concept equation" as:

-Gm(S) = (T)m

-Gm(S) - (T)m = 0

(Because I assume the general validity of Einstein's gravitational equations (other than the case of light in free space), it follows that I assume Einstein's formulation of the gravitational "warpage" of spacetime can be interpreted as the conversion of space to time. The interconversion ("covariance") of space with time is well known in other contexts involving moving or gravitational reference frames (Einstein's invariant "Interval", "Lorentz Invariance") in both Special and General Relativity. Hence the actual mathematics behind my grossly simplified "concept equation" has evidently already been done.) (See also the paper "The "Higgs" Boson vs the Spacetime Metric".

**G) (metric vs entropic equivalency of space
and time: c vs G)** The *metric* equivalency
between space, time, and free energy (light) is gauged (regulated
in magnitude) by the universal electromagnetic constant "c"; the *entropic*
equivalency between space, time, and bound energy (mass) is gauged
by G, Newton's universal gravitational constant. The quantity of
time (the amount of temporal entropy-energy) allocated per given
mass is gauged by the strength of G (-Gm). This temporal
requirement is satisfied via the gravitational annihilation of
space, extracting a time residue which is metrically equivalent to
the annihilated space. (See also: "Global vs Local
Gauge Symmetry in Gravitation".)

**H) (weakness of gravity)** Why is
gravity so weak? Because mass is connected to its entropic
conservation domain of historic spacetime only by the tangential
point of the "present moment" (time is at right angles to all
three spatial dimensions). Gravity creates only enough time to
provide the temporal entropy drive for this point-like tangential
connection between matter and its historic conservation domain.
The size of this connection for the entire mass-energy of the
Earth (for example) is approximately the size of a ping-pong ball
- the size of a black hole's "event horizon" containing Earth's
mass. This point-like contact protects charge invariance and the
energy content of matter from the vitiating effects of entropy.
However, because this gravitational contact point between history
and the spatial entropy domain of light is slightly greater than
zero, there remains a (very small) potential for the direct
entropic vitiation of matter by time and "g" - just as the spatial
entropy gauge "c" enervates the energy of light. This small
potential is actually realized through Hawking's "quantum
radiance" and through "proton decay". See: "The Half-Life of
Proton Decay and the 'Heat Death' of the Cosmos".

**I) (entropy vs symmetry)** When I
refer to the "spatial entropy drive of light", or simply to
"spatial entropy", or "light's entropy drive" or "light's
entropy": I am referring to the expansive property of space,
originating with the intrinsic motion of light, as "gauged" or
regulated by "velocity c". The "intrinsic motion" of light (free
electromagnetic energy) is the entropy drive of light and of
light's expanding conservation domain, space. Space is the
creation of light's entropy drive, created by light's intrinsic
motion explicitly for the conservation of light's energy (and
symmetry) content. The inertial symmetry of the spacetime metric
as well as the "non-local" distributional symmetry of light's
energy content - everywhere throughout its spatial conservation
domain simultaneously - are likewise gauged by "c". Hence light's
entropy drive and symmetric energy state are inextricably
intertwined, a fact reflected in the double conservation role of
gravity, which must conserve both if it conserves either one - in
obedience to Noether's theorem.

This universal spatial entropy drive or expansive property of
light, although imperceptible locally, is directly observable in
large telescopes as the cosmological "redshift" of distant
galaxies. We are, of course, also aware locally of "velocity T".
It is not light itself that gravity is converting to time, but
light's intrinsic motion, the entropy drive of light, the
principle that causes light to move, the "intrinsic" or
self-motivated component of light's motion. As we have seen, this
entropic, intrinsic, or self-motivating principle of light's
mobile, symmetric, non-local, free energy state is actually
implicit time, the same temporal component which becomes explicit
when light stops moving and assumes the form of bound energy. It
is the same implicit form of time that gravity reveals, lays bare,
or exposes in its explicit form via the annihilation of space. The
explicit form of time not only produces the historical entropy
drive of matter, but also serves as the active principle of
gravity's "location" charge. (See: "Spatial vs Temporal
Entropy".) *A gravitational field is the spatial
consequence of the intrinsic motion of time.* (See: "The Conversion
of Space to Time"; and "Gravity Diagram
No. 2".) (See also: "A Description of
Gravitation"; and "Entropy, Gravity,
and Thermodynamics".)

It is indeed a curious thought that the two great lights in our sky, the Moon and the Sun, which are so nearly equal in apparent size, also serve as examples of the two major conservation roles of gravity, which are so nearly equal in importance. In the Moon, we see (as on planet Earth) only the entropy conversion/conservation role of gravity, the creation of matter's time dimension via the annihilation of a metrically equivalent quantity of space. In the Sun, however, we see (in addition to gravity's entropy conservation role) the symmetry conservation role of gravity, the liberation of free energy from its bondage in mass-matter. The glorious difference between the Moon and Sun is just the difference between an entropy/symmetry debt passively maintained (gravity paying only the "interest" on matter's symmetry debt), and an entropy/symmetry debt actively repaid (gravity paying off the "principle" of matter's symmetry debt). Continuing this comparison, the spectacle of a solar eclipse is an apt metaphor for the most fearsome object in all nature, a black hole, demonstrating the ability of gravity's entropy conservation role to completely suppress its symmetry conservation role - while the glorious solar corona reminds us of Hawking's "quantum radiance". In the black hole, it is as if the entropy debt has become so enormous that all payments are consumed by "interest", with nothing left over to apply to "principle". In Hawking's quantum radiance, however, we find the final triumph of Noether's symmetry conservation theorem, and of light and space over time, gravity, and darkness.

**Part II**

**A) Spontaneous Entropic
Processes**

In his book "Four Laws That Drive the Universe" (Oxford University Press, 2007), Peter Atkins offers a definition of the 2nd law of thermodynamics (page 62): "In any spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe must increase."

How does this appealingly simple definition accord with our presentation of gravity and time as the ("spontaneous") entropy drives of bound energy (matter)? And especially - does this definition accord with our equation of the gravitational conversion of the spatial entropy drive of light (S) to the historical entropy drive of matter (T)?

-Gm(S) = (T)m

-Gm(S) - (T)m = 0

The intrinsic motion of light, the entropy drive of free energy,
which motivates the expansion and cooling of the spatial universe,
certainly fits this definition; and there can also be no doubt
that both time and gravity, which we have classified with light as
intrinsic dimensional motions and hence entropy drives, also
qualify as "spontaneous" changes. However, gravity is
characterized in most standard treatments as both *negative*
energy and as a *negative* entropy drive (associated with
bound energy), causing the contraction and heating of the spatial
universe, in direct opposition to the expansion and cooling caused
by the positive energy and entropy drive of light. I have
elsewhere characterized time as the positive (historical) entropy
drive of matter and bound energy generally (see: "Spatial vs Temporal
Entropy"). Time is created by gravity through the
annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically
equivalent temporal residue. Hence despite the negative entropy
input of gravitation, entropy continues to increase, but as
historical rather than spatial entropy.

As for our equation - I will consider 3 examples - atoms and planet Earth, the Sun and stars, and the Cosmos.

In the case of bound energy in the form of atoms up to and including cold planetary-sized bodies such as the Earth (that are spherical but not yet large enough to initiate fusion reactions and become stars), we simply find the gravitational conversion of space to time. This is gravity's entropy conservation role but not yet its symmetry conservation role. Earth's gravitational field creates Earth's time dimension. The historical entropy domain so created is metrically equivalent to the spatial entropy domain annihilated by gravitation - or so we hypothesize. The spatial entropy drive of light (light's intrinsic motion) is converted to and conserved as the historical entropy drive of matter (time's intrinsic motion), via the action of gravitation. This conserved attribute of matter is demonstrated by the further action of a gravitational field in the Sun and stars, where bound energy is converted to free energy, and with this energy conversion, the conserved temporal entropy drive of matter is also reconverted to the spatial entropy drive of light. (See: "Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".)

On the cosmic scale - the "Big Crunch" returns the Universe to its original configuration as a "singularity" of infinite energy density. In such a completely reversible and isolated system, the total entropy change from beginning to end is zero. Gravity is a universal conservation force which conserves entropy and the non-local symmetric energy state of light - entropy is conserved at all scales, and symmetry is conserved at sufficiently energetic scales (such as stars).

**B) The attractive
principle of gravitation**

Gravity's time charge ("location" charge) identifies the spatial
location of matter's concentrated lump of immobile and
undistributed mass-energy, indicating by the charge's relative
strength and intensity the location, quantity, and density of the
offending, asymmetrically distributed (undistributed) lump of
energy. (Note that these are exactly the parameters relevant to
matter's lack of spatial distributional symmetry, or the broken
non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy). This spatial
identification or "location" is actualized by the forceful action
of a gravitational field (a metric or inertial asymmetry) which
points to the center of mass of the lump of matter from everywhere
in the Cosmos - the gravitational field is universal in its
spatial extent. This gravitational force-field is mechanically
caused by the intrinsic, entropic flow of time into history, the
historic domain being located at right angles to all three spatial
dimensions. Since time and space are connected, being aspects of
one another, the flow of time into history pulls space along with
it. This spatial flow is what we recognize as the gravitational
field.

Because of the eternal, intrinsic, one-way flow of time, and
because the universe begins as a unit at "time zero" in the "Big
Bang", the "location" charge of gravitation identifies a unique
spacetime coordinate position for every atom. Nevertheless, as
Newton proved for the planets, in aggregate and from a distance,
these charges all appear to act from a common center, the "center
of mass". This is due to the spherical geometry of the
gravitational force and the fact that the time charge is
symmetrically bound to all three spatial dimensions
simultaneously. The graviton is a boson, a quantum unit of
negative spatial entropy or spacetime.

*A Gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the
intrinsic motion of time.* The moving time charge enters the
historic domain at the center of mass of the atom, planet, or
star, causing the spherical collapse of space (because time is
equally connected to all three spatial dimensions) as space tries
to follow time into history. However, three-dimensional space
cannot squeeze into the point-like beginning of the
one-dimensional and one-way historical time line, and
self-annihilates at the gravitational center, exposing a new
temporal component, the exact metric equivalent of the annihilated
space. (The one-way time component of spacetime cannot
self-annihilate because unlike the spatial dimensions, there is +
T but no -T.) This new temporal unit immediately marches off into
history, pulling more space along behind it, etc., repeating the
entropic cycle forever. The acceleration of gravity is due to the
constant application of a force - the constant intrinsic motion of
time. (See: "
The Conversion of Space to Time".) This interpretation of
gravitational action is completely in accord with Einstein's
General Relativity through his own "Equivalence Principle".

The "payoff" for all this activity does not become apparent
until we see sufficiently large gravitational accumulations, such
as the Sun, where we find mass-matter being converted to light,
that is, the restoration (conservation) of the non-local symmetric
energy state of light. The "location" charge of gravity, whose
active principle is time, is therefor acting like any other charge
of matter (or symmetry debt of light), paying or discharging its
symmetry debt by restoring bound and asymmetric energy
(mass-matter) to its original free and symmetric energy state
(light). This gravitational process begins with the
nucleosynthetic pathway of stars and goes to completion in
Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Hence it is only
through the application of the concept of gravitation as both an
active entropy and a time-deferred symmetry debt of light that we
can fully comprehend the source of gravity's attractive action and
conservation roles, and also bring gravitation under the symmetry
conservation umbrella of Noether's Theorem, with all the other
charges and forces of matter. *Gravity is matter's memory that
it once was light.*

This amounts to a unification of gravitation with time, which is
how we unite gravity with the other forces of physics, and General
Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The "graviton" or field vector
of gravity is a quantum unit of negative entropy, or time. *The
charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.* All
forces act together (spontaneously) to return asymmetric matter to
its original symmetric energy state, light. (See: "Symmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory.")

Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of
matter through the creation of matter's time dimension - the only
dimension in which charge conservation has extended duration and
hence causal significance. Because gravity slows the spatial
expansion of the Cosmos (via the annihilation of space), we see
that matter's time dimension or historical entropy drive is
actually funded by the intrinsic motion or spatial entropy drive
of light, with gravity acting as the conversion
(conserving/mediating) force. Gravity pays the entropy-"principal"
in stars, supernovas, quasars, and ultimately and completely, via
Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes, converting asymmetric
mass-matter to symmetric massless light. This mass conversion
process reduces the total gravitational field of the Cosmos,
giving the appearance of a mysterious universal "acceleration".
Finally, the *explicit* time component that serves as the
entropic driver of matter's historical information domain is the
very same *implicit* time component that serves as the
entropic driver of light's spatial conservation domain. Hence
time, whether in its implicit form in light and space or its
explicit form in matter, gravity, and history, is the single
motivating agent of entropy and change in the Cosmos.

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