Unification Era
Symmetry
Group, Higgs
IVBs
(Decay Path)
Field Vector
Temp/Time/GEV
Charge
Symmetry Debt
Era Role
Planck Era;
T.O.E.
"Theory of
Everything"
(Gravity and
Spacetime
Unified with
Light, Particles);
Creation of
Massive
Leptoquarks
Higgs 3;
All Forces
Unified;
G2 (?)
(Massive
Leptons and
Leptoquarks);
Gamow's "Ylem";
"Quark Soup"
"Y" IVBs;
Create/Destroy
Charged
and
Neutral
Leptoquarks
Graviton
(Gravitational
Force);
10(32) k;
10(-43) sec.
10(19) GEV;
(Rebound:
"Big Crunch")
"Location"
(gravitational
charge);
Negative
Energy/Entropy;
Total Energy/
Entropy = 0;
"Local" Mass
Distribution
Asymmetry
Negative
Gravitational
Energy;
"Ylem";
Create
Massive
Leptons,
Leptoquarks;
Time;
?Inflation?
Leptoquark Era;
G.U.T.
"Grand Unified
Theory"
(Quarks Unified
with Leptons);
Asymmetric
Leptoquark Decay;
Creation of Matter,
Hyperons
Higgs 2;
Strong,
EW Forces
Unified;
SU(5);
(Electrically
Neutral
Leptoquarks
Only)
"X" IVBs;
Transform/
Destroy
Neutral
Leptoquarks;
Create/Destroy
Matter Hyperons;
Matter/Antimatter
Symmetry-
Breaking;
"Proton Decay"
Gluon
(Strong Force);
10(28) k;
10(-35) sec.
10(16) GEV;
(Rebound:
Supernova,
Black Hole)
Color
Charge;
Total
Color = 0;
Partial Charge
Asymmetry
of Quarks;
"Asymptotic
Freedom",
Quark
Confinement
Asymmetric
Decay of
Leptoquarks
Creates Matter,
Hyperon
"Singlets",
Leptoquark
Neutrinos;
Dark
Matter (?)
Hyperon Era;
EW
Electroweak Union
(Quarks Unified,
Leptons Unified);
Creation of
Lepton/Meson
Alternative
Charge
Carriers
Higgs 1;
Weak, EM
Forces Unified;
SU(2), SU(3)
(Leptons, Quarks)
"W" IVBs;
Transform
Hyperons;
Create/Destroy/
Transform
Alternative
Charge Carriers
(leptons, mesons,
neutrinos)
IVB
(Weak Force);
10(15) k;
10(-10) sec.
10(2) GEV;
(Rebound:Stars,
White Dwarf,
Neutron Star)
"Identity"
("Number") Charge;
Total
"Number" = 0;
"Identity"
Asymmetry of
Leptons,
Baryons,
Fermions
Creates,
Destroys,
Transforms
Single
Leptons,
Neutrinos,
Quarks;
Transforms
Single
Baryons
Atomic Era
EM
Electromagnetic
Unification;
Electric/Magnetic
Fields Unified;
Creation of Atoms,
Information,
Spacetime
EM
"Ground
State";
Spacetime
Metric
(Scaled by
c, G);
U(1) (Phase)
(Light)
(Photons)
Photons;
Create and
Transform EM
Fields,
Space and Time;
Create/Transform
Chemicals,
Molecules,
Information
Photon
(Electromagnetic
Force);
(currently)
Temp. 2.7 K;
Historic
Spacetime;
13.7 Billion Yr.
10(-3) EV;
(Rebound: Planets)
Electric;
Total Electric
Charge = 0;
4th Dimension
One-Way
Asymmetry
(Time)
Creates
Spacetime,
Information,
Atoms, Life;
"c" Gauges
Metric
and
Virtual
Particle "Sea"
Higgs Table No. I: Unified Force Eras or Symmetric Energy Levels of the "Big Bang"
J. A. Gowan and A. T. Jaccaci (revised, Nov., 2012) http://www.johnagowan.org/index.html
"Multiverse": Non-dimensional "vacuum" source of undefined symmetric energy and creative potential - produces our 4-D universe as a quantum fluctuation of no net energy or charge, conserving energy, with "life-friendly" physical constants ("Anthropic Principle"). Balanced pos-neg (gravitational) energy and matter-antimatter charge symmetry. (Cosmos, Multiverse united). "Big Bang": Cosmos devolves from "Multiverse".
Information and Biological Eras evolve as ground state "rebounds" from entropy-driven "Higgs cascade". Rebound is driven by symmetry conservation, negentropic gravity, and evolutionary forces, creating planets, stars, black holes, galaxies, "Big Crunch", heavy elements, chemistry, information, life, humanity. (See Also: "Table of the Unified-Force Eras of the Cosmos".)

THE HIGGS BOSON AND THE WEAK FORCE IVBS (INTERMEDIATE VECTOR BOSONS): PART IV: TABLE OF THE HIGGS CASCADE

JOHN A. GOWAN
Revised Nov., 2012
home page (page 1)
home page (page 2)
E-Book

Abstract

We explore the hypothesis that there are 3 "families" or energy levels of the Higgs bosons and their associated Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs), analogously to the three families or energy levels of the quarks and leptons. With its origin in the "Multiverse", our Universe apparently devolved (rapidly) downward in an asymmetric "Higgs Cascade" to the electromagnetic ground state, and now evolves (slowly) upward again in a "rebound" driven by negentropic gravity and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), back to the Multiverse state (in a "Big Crunch" gravitational cosmic collapse) or to a state of pure electromagnetic radiation (light). CERN announced the discovery of a Higgs-like boson on 4 July, 2012 (energy level ~126 GEV).

Unification Eras (or Symmetric Energy States) of the "Big Bang":

Force-Unity Eras: Multiverse Era

Multiverse Era: Non-dimensional, "vacuum" potential of undefined creative energy, producing infinitely (?) many energy-conserving Universes (with various and unique physical constants) via quantum fluctuations of no net energy or charge, one of which (constrained by the "Anthropic Principle") becomes our own. Below, scalar Higgs particles, "Standard Model" symmetry groups, transformative IVB families, and field vectors of the four forces are listed for an entropy driven decay "cascade" through 4 successively diminishing levels of force unification. Major roles and productions of the eras are suggested. Except for the final EM "ground" state, unification eras correspond to a specific temperature (absolute degrees Kelvin) and time period (after "time zero") of the "Big Bang" decay sequence (For table data see: Brian Greene: "The Fabric of the Cosmos", P. 270, Knopf, 2004, and Frank Close: The New Cosmic Onion Taylor and Francis, 2007, page 196. For symmetry discussion, see : Ian Stewart, "Why Beauty is Truth", P. 239-73, Basic Books, 2007). For a discussion of the Higgs boson, see: Sean Carroll: The Particle at the End of the Universe, Dutton, 2012

Force-Unity Eras: Planck Era

3) Planck Era (quantum gravity era, primordial "Ylem" era). Y+, Y-, Y (neutral) IVBs; Higgs 3 (or "Higgs y"), - TOE unity (Theory of Everything): unified positive electromagnetic and negative gravitational energy ("Yin-Yang"). All forces unified. 10(32)k; 10(-43) sec. Unified gravity, light, spacetime, and bound energy forms (primordial, electrically charged leptons; charged leptoquarks (a leptoquark is a trisected heavy lepton, the mass limit of the leptonic spectrum). "Quark soup", "quantum gravity". Negative gravitational energy exactly balances positive electromagnetic energy. Matter-antimatter symmetry. Primordial, massive, charged leptons are produced by the combined action of all forces. "Y" IVBs transform electrically charged leptoquarks into electrically neutral leptoquarks, creating the possibility of matter-antimatter symmetry-breaking. Neutral leptoquarks will decay further in level 2 (Leptoquark Era). Matter-antimatter annihilations. (Creation of primordial leptons, particle mass, and leptoquarks; "Big Bang" Creation Event; separation of Universe from Multiverse. Creation of bound electromagnetic energy (massive particle-antiparticle pairs) from free electromagnetic energy (light). Coding and conservation of light's symmetry, energy, and entropy parameters as the charges, spin, mass, and time of particles. Rebound = "Big Crunch".)

Force-Unity Eras: Leptoquark Era

2) Leptoquark Era. X+, X-, X (neutral) IVBs; Higgs 2 (or "Higgs x"), - GUT unity (Grand Unified Theory). Electrically neutral leptoquarks only. Separation of the spacetime metric (including gravity) from primordial leptoquarks, and the beginning of the entropic expansion and cooling of the Cosmos. This separation may correspond to the "inflationary" era of Guth and Linde (?). Strong and electroweak forces unified. Quarks and leptons combined but with separate spacetime and gravity. 10(28)k; 10(-35) sec. Quark partial charges allow the existence of electrically neutral leptoquarks. "X" IVBs compress neutral leptoquarks, causing color charge to self-annihilate in the limit of "asymptotic freedom". With conserved color charges absent, weak force decays proceed (via the "X" IVBs) with the emission of leptoquark neutrinos. Asymmetric weak force decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks vs antileptoquarks produces level H1 Hyperon Era and matter asymmetry of Cosmos. (Transformation of leptoquarks. Asymmetric creation of matter and single hyperons; leptoquark antineutrinos are "dark matter" candidates. "Proton decay". Rebound = black holes.) (For "inflation" hypothesis, see: Alan H. Guth The Inflationary Universe Helix Books 1997.)

Force-Unity Eras: Hyperon Era

1) Hyperon Era. W+, W-, W (neutral) IVBs; Higgs 1 (or "Higgs w"), - EW unity (Electroweak Unification): hyperons (heavy baryons) and heavy leptons. Weak and electromagnetic forces unified. 10(15k); 10(-12) sec. Matter-only asymmetry. Leptons and quarks separate into unified lepton "genera" and unified hadron "genera". "W" IVBs transform quarks into other quarks and leptons into other leptons (but not leptons into quarks). Hyperons and heavy leptons decay (via "W" IVBs) to "ground state" proton, neutron, electron, and photon with emission of leptonic antineutrinos. Leptons, mesons, and neutrinos serve as alternative charge carriers for the decays of hyperons and heavy leptons, avoiding antimatter annihilation reactions. (Creation of leptons, neutrinos, mesons - alternative charge carriers; creation of leptonic "singlets". Transformation of baryons. Rebound = Stars)

Atomic Era: "Ground State"

Atomic Era. Cold "Ground State". Free-ranging photons; creation of large spatial and temporal dimensions. Bosons, leptons, hadrons - EM unity (Electromagnetic Unification). Spacetime, light, and gravity remain unified, electric and magnetic fields remain unified. Heisenberg/Dirac virtual "vacuum" particle "sea". Photon separates from "W" IVBs, creates and energizes space; gravity creates time from space, time creates history. Photons and the spacetime metric are the ground state (dimensional) analogs of the Higgs and IVB "particle metric". Era of atomic matter, information, light, gravity, and spacetime. (Creation of space, time, atoms. Rebound = Planets.)

The "Ground State Vacuum" also hosts virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, which are essential for maintaining an active connection between the electromagnetic ground state and higher energy electroweak transformations, (for example, the transmutation of atomic nuclei in "radioactive" decays and during element-building in stars during the early "rebound phase"). Both processes (fission and fusion) directly and continuously interact with the electromagnetic ground state, whereas interactions at the GUT and TOE energy levels are typically of one-time historic significance (creation of Universe, creation of matter). Neutrino "flavor" oscillations may be an example of a remnant union from the more symmetric EW era.

Symmetry Restoration or "Rebound" Era

Ground State "Rebound" Information, life, and consciousness era, including humanity, symbolic information, and technology. Driven by symmetry conservation, negentropic gravity, and biological evolutionary forces. Rebound begins with planets (ground state); continues through sun-like stars and neutron stars (level H1); supernovas, quasars, and black holes (level H2); and cosmic collapse or "Big Crunch" (level H3). Creation of planets, stars, black holes, the "Big Crunch"; heavy elements, molecules, chemistry, life, conscious experience, symbolic information, technology, humanity, novel forms of creativity and beauty. (See: "Nature's Fractal Pathway".)

We have previously (and correctly) understood the gravitational rationale from the point of view of: 1) energy, entropy, and causality conservation (the gravitational creation of time from space, providing the temporal entropy drive and causal linkages for bound energy); 2) the point of view of symmetry conservation (the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy, as in stars); 3) as the source of negative energy (balancing positive electromagnetic energy) in the "Big Bang". (See: Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics"). The gravitational recapitulation of force unification and symmetry states (culminating in the "Big Crunch") allows us to understand the gravitational rationale from a new, fourth perspective embracing only the reunification of the four forces.

Rationale for the Higgs Boson

The Higgs boson is necessary to gauge the rest mass energy of the IVBs and the elementary leptons and quarks, so their masses will have a defined and invariant magnitude, reproducible everywhere and anywhere in time and space. This is the grand "local gauge symmetry" of the weak force and the single elementary particles it produces. An electron created today can be "swapped out" with any other in the Cosmos, no matter when or where it was produced, including in the "Big Bang". The large Higgs and IVB masses reproduce the force-unity energy levels in which these particles were first produced (the electroweak force-unity energy level in the case of the "W" IVBs). Hence every elementary particle is forged from the same original mold, and every weak force interaction is a mini "Creation Event". The Higgs acts through the IVBs to gauge the elementary particle masses. Regarding the inertial mass of particles as measured by resistance to acceleration (F = MA), see: "The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric".

The anomalous parity violation of the weak force is due to the absence of antimatter. Lacking other distinguishing charges, left vs right "handedness" is the only way neutrinos are differentiated from antineutrinos - all matter neutrinos have left-handed spin and all antimatter neutrinos have right-handed spin. In our matter-only universe, the weak force can only interact with left-handed electrons (for example), because the electron neutrinos which carry the electron's leptonic "number" or "identity" charge (the alternative charge carrier) is perforce exclusively left-handed.

Like other charges, "handedness" must either be conserved as it is, or neutralized by its opposite. When an electron is created, its leptonic "number" or "identity" charge must be neutralized by an accompanying antineutrino, which however can only have right-handed spin, forcing the electron (which ordinarily can have either handedness) to have the opposite and balancing left-handed spin. When this electron is subsequently destroyed in some later weak force reaction, its number charge must be conserved (carried forward as is) by a (matter) neutrino, which of course can only have left-handed spin. Hence we see the parity charge "left-handedness" carried through the creation and destruction of (matter) electrons, first by the electron itself, and then by its neutrino. Thus arises the weak force violation of parity, coupling only to left-handed particles, an asymmetry which would be completely reversed if our world were made of antimatter.

References

Links to other parts of this paper:

Links:

home page (page 1)
home page (page 2)
E-Book