**The Tetrahedron Model in the
Context of a Complete Conservation Cycle**

Revised Sept., 2010

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jag8@cornell.edu

johngowan@earthlink.net

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John A. Gowan

**Table of Contents:**

**Abstract**

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state, repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light.

**Section I: Four
Conservation Principles**

The Tetrahedron Model (a Unified Field Theory or "Theory of Everything") has as its principle focus the transformation of free electromagnetic energy (light) into bound electromagnetic energy (matter) and vice versa. Four primary and interrelated conservation laws govern these transformations, as diagrammed in the model; briefly, they are:

**I) The Conservation of Energy:** 1st
law of thermodynamics. Energy may be transformed but energy cannot
be created or destroyed. Total energy within a closed system is
invariant. In the Tetrahedron Model we see 3 major expressions of
the transformation and conservation of light's energy (free
electromagnetic radiation): 1) raw energy conservation - the
transformation of free to bound energy - as in the creation of
matter during the Big Bang: E = mcc (or any conversion of light's
energy into the bound energy of matter, including chemical,
molecular, and kinetic energy, momentum, heat, etc.) 2) Entropy -
as expressed through the intrinsic dimensional motions of light,
time, and gravity, which create the dimensional conservation
domains of space, history, and spacetime (the dimensions are
conservation arenas created by the primordial drives of spatial
and temporal entropy, including their gravitational
transformations, one to the other). 3) Symmetry conservation -
expressed principally through charge conservation in matter and
through inertial forces in spacetime (Noether's theorem - charge
is a temporally conserved form of light's symmetry).

Raw energy conservation allows the transformation of light to bound energy; entropy allows the transformation of free energy to "work", and light's intrinsic motion to time's intrinsic motion (via gravity); symmetry conservation allows the transformation of light to charge and information: together they create the material world. (See: "Synopsis of the Tetrahedron Model". The Cosmos is a manifest domain of conservation law, whose principle and interrelated expressions are raw energy conservation, symmetry, entropy, and causality (as expressed through matter, charge, spacetime, information, and "karma"). Additional, auxiliary conservation parameters and corollaries are discussed below in section II.

**II) Entropy:** 2nd law of
thermodynamics - allowing the transformation of energy to many
forms, including "work". Entropy increases so that energy is not
created or destroyed during its many allowed transformations. (In
this regard, entropy is like a very generalized or "global"
example of a "local gauge symmetry current" operating at the
primordial level of conservation law, protecting the conservation
of energy.) The expansion and cooling of the universe is driven by
entropy, which demands that the capacity for work by any closed
system must decrease over time. The intrinsic motion of light is
the entropy drive of free energy, creating, expanding, and cooling
spacetime; the intrinsic motion of time is the entropy drive of
bound energy, creating, expanding, and aging (diluting) history,
the temporal analog of space. The dimensions of spacetime are
domains of energy conservation created by the entropic drives of
the intrinsic
motions of light, time, and gravity. Gravity is the entropy
conversion force, converting space and the drive of spatial
entropy (the intrinsic motion of light) to time and the drive of
historical entropy (the intrinsic motion of time), and vice versa.
Entropy allows us to use energy because it absolutely forbids us
to abuse energy. This is why both light and time have effectively
"infinite" velocities which are metric equivalents of each other -
they are the entropy drives of free and bound energy, creating
dimensional conservation domains in which energy can be
simultaneously used, transformed, and yet conserved. See: "Entropy,
Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".

**III) The Conservation of Symmetry:**
Noether's Theorem. Not only the total energy of light, but also
light's symmetry must be conserved. The quality of energy as well
as the quantity of energy must be conserved. The principle
expressions of Noether's Theorem and symmetry conservation are
through the inertial forces of spacetime and charge conservation
in matter. *The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of
light.* Symmetry conservation allows the conversion of energy
to information through the mechanism of quantized charges which
are redeemable through time, whereas raw energy and entropy debts
(and inertial symmetry debts) must be paid immediately. Charges
are a temporally conserved form of light's symmetry, just as mass
is a temporally conserved form of light's raw energy. To use a
financial analogy, gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on matter's
symmetry debt, creating matter's time dimension, borrowing
entropy-energy from the intrinsic motion of light and the spatial
expansion of the cosmos, which decelerates accordingly. Hence,
through gravity, it is ultimately the spatial entropy drive of
light's intrinsic motion which funds the historical entropy drive
of time's intrinsic motion. All forces act in concert to return
asymmetric matter to its original symmetric energy state, light.
Our Sun is the archetypal example of a closed
symmetry-conservation circuit. (This gravitational circuit
actually goes to completion via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of
black holes.) See: "Symmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory" and "The Sun Archetype".

**IV) Causality-Information:** The
law of cause and effect - "Karma". Light is non-local, atemporal,
and acausal. Matter is local, temporal, causal. The historical
dimension of spacetime is the conservation domain of matter's
information field, matter's "causal matrix". The reality of today
is only maintained by the continuing reality of yesterday. As the
"Spacetime Map"
clearly indicates, our "yesterday" is another observer's "today",
and vice versa. The universe is a thoroughly interconnected causal
network which begins with the plasma era of the "Big Bang", a
period of thermal equilibrium between matter and light which
lasted for about 300,000 years. We are all immortal in spacetime;
total energy, symmetry, entropy, and information are all conserved
in historic spacetime. "Every jot and tittle of the law will be
fulfilled" and "not a sparrow falls but the Father knows."

**Section II: Four Stages of
Conservation**

While the "Tetrahedron Diagram" represents the most important conservation considerations involved in the conversion of free energy to bound energy (raw energy, entropy, symmetry), it cannot also represent all the additional modes and levels of conservation involved in the maintenance and evolution of matter's conserved state through time, including the eventual return of the material system to its original symmetric form. At least four stages are involved in the complete conservation cycle: 1) the initial devolution of our Universe from the Multiverse (in which the types and magnitudes of the various physical constants are established); 2) the "Genesis" conversion of light to matter during the "Big Bang"; 3) the maintenance and evolution of the conserved parameters of matter (such as charge) through time; 4) the final return of matter and its conserved properties to its original symmetric energy state, light. These stages are discussed briefly below, and more extensively in many papers referenced on my web site. (See also: "The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs" for a more detailed discussion of the complete conservation cycle.)

In the Tetrahedron diagram, the three "outer" lines represent "global" conservation parameters pertaining to light and absolute motion as gauged by "velocity c": 1) the creation, expansion, and cooling of space; 2) the creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs; 3) the inertially symmetric spatial metric in which time and distance (x, t) are vanished. Gravity, mass, charge, time, and distance are all suppressed in the symmetric and entropic spatial domain established by the intrinsic motion of free electromagnetic energy as gauged by "velocity c": particle number = 0; mass = 0; charge = 0; spacetime "Interval" = 0; metric warpage = 0; time and distance = 0; "location" = 0 (light is non-local, atemporal, and acausal).

When light is
converted to matter, breaking the symmetry of space and
matter-antimatter particle pairs via the asymmetric weak force
decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks during the "Big Bang",
conservation takes a new, asymmetric, "local" and "relative" form,
directly derived from the preexisting, symmetric, "global" and
absolute form. For example, the spatial metric formerly gauged by
the universal electromagnetic constant "c", becomes the spacetime
metric gauged by the universal gravitational constant "G". "G"
gauges the creation
of time from space per given mass (Gm): gravity annihilates
space, extracting or revealing a metrically equivalent temporal
residue. The asymmetric, "one-way" presence of time "warps" the
symmetric "all way" entropic domain of space, establishing a new
(compound) entropic domain (historic spacetime) for light and
matter's causal information network or "matrix". Whereas light is
atemporal, non-local, and acausal, matter is temporal, local, and
causal. The entropic expansion of space is gravitationally
converted to the entropic expansion of historic spacetime: the
purely spatial expansion of the Cosmos decelerates accordingly.
The raw energy of light is converted into the raw energy of
matter-mass: h*v* = mcc. The symmetry of light is converted
into the temporally conserved charges of matter: charges are a
temporally conserved form of light's various (broken) symmetries.
*The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light*
(Noether's Theorem). Gravity pays the entropy-interest on matter's
symmetry debt by the annihilation of space and the extraction of a
metrically equivalent temporal residue, decelerating the spatial
expansion of the Cosmos accordingly. Hence it is the spatial
expansion or entropy drive of light that ultimately funds the
gravitational creation of time from space, and the entropic
historical expansion of matter's causal information field.

**III) The Maintenance of
Charge Invariance**

In the relative, temporal, and gravitational spacetime domain of
matter, the conservation of symmetry, now in the form of charge
conservation, also requires the invariance of those charges
through time and despite any relative motion. Hence locally active
forces are required to protect the invariance of charges and other
conserved attributes of matter's symmetry, energy, and entropy
debts. For example, magnetism is necessary to protect the value of
electric charge in relative motion; the weak force IVBs (and the
scalar Higgs boson) are necessary to protect the invariant masses
and associated charges of elementary particles whenever and
wherever they may be created. Elementary particles created today
must be exactly the same in all respects as those created
yesterday, tomorrow, or in the Big Bang 14 billion years ago. To
this end, the great
mass of the weak force IVBs recapitulates the original
environmental conditions (in terms of energy density) in
which elementary particles were first created during the "Big
Bang". The gluons of the strong force color charge are necessary
to hold together the partial charges of the quarks, protecting the
quantum mechanical integrity and value of whole quantum unit
symmetry debts; "asymptotic freedom" is a direct force consequence
of the increasing or decreasing threat to symmetry-keeping through
whole quantum unit charges, responsive to the expansion or
contraction of the quarks relative to a common center. (Quark
partial charges are required in the first place to allow the
creation of an electrically neutral particle (the "leptoquark")
which can break the symmetry of matter-antimatter particle pairs
via weak force
decays during the "Big Bang". These partial charges, in
turn, require confinement via the gluons of the strong force. Matter is only as
complex as necessary to break the original matter-antimatter
symmetry of the Cosmos.) "Lorentz Invariance", the covariance of
temporal and spatial dimensions in Einstein's Special and General
Relativity, is necessary to protect causality, the spacetime
"Interval", and the invariant value of "velocity c" in a material
world of relative
rather than absolute motion. Time and the gravitational
metric required to create a 4th dimension are necessary to
conserve energy in the realm of relative motion of massive
particles rather than the realm of absolute motion of massless
light. Time is one-way to satisfy causality, entropy, and energy
conservation for massive particles. *Gravity is the spatial
consequence of the intrinsic motion of time;* gravity creates
time via the annihilation of space and the extraction of a
metrically equivalent temporal residue; time and gravity induce
each other endlessly. (See: "A Description of
Gravitation".)

Hence we see an additional layer of conservation law ("local gauge symmetry forces or currents") associated with the maintenance through time of various conserved properties of the material realm, but in all cases this layer is derived directly from the primary spatial conservation domain of light and its metric. (For example, time is derived from space, charges are derived from light's symmetry, mass is derived from light's raw energy, real particles are derived from virtual particles, color charge is derived from electric charge, gluons are derived from photons, particles are derived from spacetime, etc.) This secondary level of conservation activity is typically produced by embedded partial aspects of the field vectors of the four forces - magnetism, time, IVB mass, gluons. We noted earlier that entropy itself may be seen as performing a similar but generalized maintenance function protecting energy conservation, at the primary or "global" level of conservation law. Entropy at this primordial level of function is also an embedded property of energy ("intrinsic motion" c, G, T). (See: "Local" or relative vs "global" or absolute gauge symmetry currents).

**IV) The Return of Matter to
Light**

A final stage of conservation activity, due to the direct action of the field vectors or force carriers, gives rise to the "4 forces of physics", which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state, light. These include: 1) exothermic chemical reactions, matter-antimatter annihilations (electromagnetic force); 2, 3) fusion and fission, radioactivity and nucleosynthesis, particle and proton decay (strong and weak forces); 4) the stellar conversion of mass to light, quasar conversion of gravitational energy to light, and finally Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (gravity). These annihilation reactions all involve the reunion of matter with antimatter in some form, in total effect reversing the "Big Bang" reactions that originally separated them. The fact that the field vectors of the four forces are all their own antiparticles (either individually or in sum), is necessary to this final reunion. (See: "Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory".)

**Synopsis of the Four
Conservation Stages or Activity Levels:**

**1)** Devolution of our Universe from the Multiverse - the
specification and establishment of the "given" physical constants
and their "gauge" magnitudes (c, G, h, e, etc.). ("This is to be a
universe of electromagnetic energy, in two interchangeable and
interactive forms, free and bound (light and matter), wholly
conserved in terms of energy, symmetry, and information, with
dimensional and interchangeable entropic parameters (space and
time), and including the following types and values of physical
constants: "c", the electromagnetic constant, 300,000 meters/sec;
"G", the gravitational constant, ..... etc. ") - (such details
would automatically accompany the specification of the principle
energy type ("electromagnetic"), with little or no option for
variation (in a universe "friendly" to our life form)).

**2)** Conversion of Light to Matter ("Big Bang") (Via the
asymmetric weak force decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks):

a) Conservation of Raw Energy (the energy of light converted to
mass and momentum - allowing "matter");

b) Conservation of Symmetry (the symmetry of light converted to
charge and spin - allowing "information");

c) Conservation of Entropy (the spatial entropy drive of light
(the intrinsic motion of light) converted to the historical
entropy drive of matter (the intrinsic motion of time) - allowing
"work" and relative rather than "absolute" motion).

**3)** Maintenance of the Conserved Parameters of the
Material System Through Time in an Invariant State (invariance of
charge/spin, elementary particles, causality, the "Interval", and
"velocity c" in all circumstances):

a) Electric Charge Invariance (magnetic fields protect the
invariance of electric charge in relative motion);

b) "Lorentz Invariance" (covariance of time and space with
relative motion) (Special and General Relativity - invariance of
"velocity c", the "Interval", and causality);

c) Elementary Particle Invariance (weak force IVBs and Higgs
scalar boson);

d) Whole Quantum Charge Unit Invariance (strong force color charge
and gluon field).

**4)** Return of the Material System to Light via Action of
the Four Forces of Physics - Conversion of Mass-Matter to Light:

a) Exothermic chemical reactions; matter-antimatter annihilations,
including normal suppression of virtual particle-antiparticle
pairs (electromagnetic force);

b) Nucleosynthetic pathway - fusion; proton decay (strong force);

c) Radioactivity - fission; particle and proton decay (weak
force);

d) Stellar conversion of mass to light; quasar conversion of
gravitational energy to light; Hawking's "quantum radiance" of
black holes (gravitational force);

e) Evolution of life forms - the Universe becomes aware of and
experiences itself through life, converting energy into
self-experience and self-understanding, "enlightenment" (unity),
and new forms of creativity (art, science, technology). Humans
also convert bound into free energy through exothermic chemical
reactions and even controlled (and uncontrolled) nuclear fission
and fusion.

**Acknowledgment:**

The author gratefully acknowledges the contribution of August T. Jaccaci to the "General Systems" content of the Tetrahedron Model discussed in this paper. The "scientific" content of the model is the author's own responsibility - JAG. (See: "Introduction to General Systems" and "Introduction to Fractals" for a discussion of the development of the General Systems models exhibited on this website.)

email:

jag8@cornell.edu

johngowan@earthlink.net

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