A
Short Course in the Unified Field Theory

John A. Gowan

(Revised June 2014)

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*What we see is not Nature, but Nature exposed
to our method of questioning* - W. C. Heisenberg

Table of
Contents:

Abstract

Introduction

__The Conservation and Invariance of Charge__

__Symmetry Debts of the Four forces__

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory
as presented in these pages is summarized below:

**Abstract**

Atomic matter is an asymmetric, bound, massive, and temporally (historically) conserved form of light (as demonstrated by antimatter annihilation). In matter, light's raw energy is conserved as mass and momentum; light's symmetry is conserved as charge and spin; light's spatial entropy drive (intrinsic motion) is conserved as matter's historic entropy drive (intrinsic motion); light's spatial continuity is conserved as matter's historical causality. Gravity converts light's spatial entropic domain into matter's temporal entropic domain, and vice versa (gravity creates time from space and vice-versa). Energy Conservation, Symmetry Conservation, Entropy, and Causality/Information are the four principle conservation parameters of the "Tetrahedron Model", and constitute the foundations of natural or physical law which underlie and support the Unified Field Theory of the four physical forces. (See: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' of the Unified Field Theory"). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The requirement of primordial symmetry-breaking (creating matter from light) followed by the maintenance of charge invariance (producing the phenomena of Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ), are also key conceptual elements.

In this paper I explore the connections between of the four physical forces, with special emphasis upon their symmetry relations under the unifying mantle of Noether's symmetry conservation theorem - which I paraphrase as:

(Abstract revised Oct. 2016.)

See: the "Tetrahedron Model" (simple version) (diagram)

The Tetrahedron Model (complete version) (diagram)

**Introduction**

Our universe consists of a mixture of free and bound
electromagnetic energy (light and matter), set in
gravitational spacetime, governed and regulated by various
conservation laws and forces which determine both its origin and
destiny. This paper is an abbreviated discussion of our physical
system, its evolution and laws, and how they are integrated into
what is known as the Unified Field
Theory. This paper is not intended to stand alone. For an
in-depth discussion of the many concepts surveyed in this
article, the reader must see the supporting papers referenced on
my website. I am trying to reach a qualitative conceptual
unification only (not a quantitative mathematical unification),
and I will employ an evolutionary and a General Systems approach
to the subject. I am generally more interested in *why* the universe is as we find it, in
terms of conservation laws, rather than the mathematical
details (the *how*)
of its working Ð both because others are (much!) better than I
at the math, and these days it is mostly the *why* which remains mysterious. Of
course, as we will see, the *why* and the *how* are usually intertwined.

Any manifest universe must be capable of symmetry-breaking
plus complete self-conservation Ð that is, able to escape its
symmetric beginning, but also able to recycle itself, returning
to its origin under its own power, initiative, and
self-contained conservation principles Ð as a boomerang returns
to the hand that throws it. Thus we find that matter is actually
a bound form of light, enabling the material universe - which
originates as light - to return to light (free vs bound
electromagnetic energy). This is also why the four forces Ð
which constitute a final pathway for matter back to light Ð must
also be the initial pathway which leads from light to matter.
(See: ÒThe
Higgs Boson and the Evolutionary Eras of the CosmosÓ.)

** **

The
Four
Conservation Principles governing the transformation of
light into matter and vice versa (See: ÒThe Tetrahedron
ModelÓ):

1) Energy Conservation: conservation of raw
energy. Energy may be transformed but neither created nor
destroyed. In the ÒBig BangÓ the raw energy of light (free
electromagnetic energy) is transformed to the raw energy of
matter and kinetic energy (ÒmassÓ -- bound electromagnetic
energy): hv = mcc (DeBroglieÕs equation).

2) Entropy:
c, G, T Ð intrinsic motion of light, gravity, and time.
The dimensions are energy conservation domains created by the
primordial entropy drives (intrinsic motions) of free and bound
electromagnetic energy. The intrinsic motion of light creates,
expands, and cools space; the intrinsic motion of time creates,
expands, and dilutes history, and decays matter; gravity
mediates between the entropic domains of space and history,
creating time from space (as on earth) and vice versa (as in the
stars). Entropy is the principle that allows us to use and
transform energy without violating energy conservation. The
intrinsic motions of light and time are metrically equivalent
ÒinfiniteÓ velocities (primordial entropy drives) protecting
energy conservation. (See: ÒSpatial vs
Temporal EntropyÓ.)

3) Symmetry Conservation (and
symmetry-breaking): NoetherÕs Theorem. *The charges of matter
are the symmetry debts of light.* Symmetric light produces asymmetric
matter (through primordial symmetry-breaking weak force
processes which separate matter from antimatter). In
consequence of symmetry-breaking, matter bears charges
(symmetry debts) which cause forces (forces represent the
demand for payment of the symmetry debts); forces act to
return matter to light, paying matterÕs symmetry debts, as
required by NoetherÕs Theorem. One charge exists for each
force, including gravity (ÒlocationÓ charge). The symmetry of
light is conserved no less than the raw energy of light.
Charge and symmetry conservation allow the transformation of
energy into ÒinformationÓ Ð just as entropy allows the
transformation of energy into ÒworkÓ. (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field TheoryÓ.)

4) Causality-Information: Law of cause and
effect Ð ÒkarmaÓ, history, historic spacetime. Atoms, matter,
mass. Free electromagnetic energy is transformed into bound
electromagnetic energy: E = hv; E = mcc; hv = mcc (Planck;
Einstein; DeBroglie). Matter is local, causal, temporal and
massive, bearing charges, information, producing a gravitational
field proportional to its bound energy (Gm), and moving with an
intrinsic (entropic) historical motion T (time) (see: ÒThe Time TrainÓ). Light is
non-local, acausal, atemporal, and massless, bearing no charges
or information, producing no gravitational field, and moving
with an intrinsic (entropic) spatial motion c (Òvelocity of
lightÓ). History is the temporal analog of space. From
information, charge, and energy, matter evolves life through
time, an inevitable chemical reaction guided by the 4x3 fractal
algorithm of the Cosmos (See: ÒNatureÕs Fractal
PathwayÓ). The role of
charge and information is to guide the return of matter
to light, and to produce life, the energy form by which the
universe knows and experiences itself, and eventually fulfills
its creative potential. (See: ÒThe Human
ConnectionÓ.)

**The Conservation and Invariance of Charge**

The transformation of light to matter and back again
(symmetry breaking and symmetry restoration) must satisfy
specific conservation regulations or principles, including - (in
our case but not generally) Ð Òlife friendlyÓ physical constants
(the low value of G in our cosmos would be an example), which
allow (among other things) the slow return of the material
system to light, providing time for the evolution of life. The
extended time interval between the initiation and destruction of
our universe requires compensating or ÒholdingÓ actions by the
return forces which maintain the material system in a state of
perpetual readiness to return to light (ready to pay or redeem
upon demand the symmetry debt of light as carried by matter),
and this despite being embedded in a hostile, temporal
environment. Examples of obstacles to conservation in
our material world include: an environment of relative rather
than absolute motion; a metric dominated by G rather than c;
massive rather than massless forms of energy; fractional rather
than unitary charges (quarks); particles with differing
identities (ÒflavorsÓ) (leptons, baryons) rather than
ÒanonymousÓ identical particles (photons). In sum: temporal,
local, causal, massive, and charged particles producing
gravitational fields, relative motions, with diverse ÒflavorsÓ
or identities (quarks and leptons) rather than atemporal,
non-local, acausal, massless, uncharged anonymous particles
producing no gravitational fields and having intrinsic absolute
motion (photons).

In addition to actually paying the symmetry debts
represented by charge, the 4 forces of physics also conspire to
maintain the invariance of charge and other conserved parameters
despite the imperfections of the material environment (the
Òholding actionsÓ mentioned above), and in this role are
designated Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ forces. (See: ÒGlobal vs Local
Gauge Symmetry and the Tetrahedron ModelÓ: Part 1.) It
will be appreciated that the maintenance of charge invariance is
a necessary corollary of charge conservation, and that this is
not a trivial matter in our imperfect world of matter, time,
gravitation, relative motion, and entropic expansion. Thus, in
the electromagnetic force we find magnetism, which rises and
falls with the increase or decrease of the relative motion of
electrically charged particles, maintaining thereby the
invariance of electric charge. The relative motion of material
objects in spacetime likewise produces ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ, the
co-varying effects of time and space described by EinsteinÕs
Special Relativity, which operate to protect causality, velocity
c, and the invariance of the ÒIntervalÓ.

Time itself is an alternative form of entropy drive
produced by gravity (via the annihilation of space), to
compensate for matterÕs lack of intrinsic spatial motion and the
loss of lightÕs non-local distributional symmetry in immobile,
massive particles. Because the energy content of massive
particles varies with their velocity, the relative motion of
massive particles would be impossible without a time dimension
to accommodate such variable energy accounts. The historical
domain likewise exists to accommodate the causal relations of
matter, as also necessitated by energy conservation.

The
primordial requirement of symmetry-breaking (the escape of
matter from light and annihilating particle-antiparticle pairs)
followed by charge conservation has left an indelible impress
upon the composition and character of the atomic system,
including charge quantization, the fractional charges of the
quarks, and the division of atomic matter into mass-carrying
quarks (nuclear material) and charge-carrying electrons and
neutrinos (hadrons vs leptons).
The three-family structure of the quark and lepton fields
may be a further example.

The neutrino is an alternative form of ÒidentityÓ charge
produced by the weak force to compensate for the loss of the
photonÕs symmetric ÒanonymityÓ by the individually
distinguishable spectrum of massive elementary particles. (See:
ÒThe Particle
TableÓ.) The alternative identity charges of the neutrinos
(including their ÒhandednessÓ) are crucially necessary to allow
ÒBig BangÓ symmetry-breaking and the escape of the material
system of quarks and electrons from the otherwise mutual
destruction of annihilating matter-antimatter particle pairs.
The leptonic families in general act as alternative charge
carriers for the electric and identity charges of the
mass-carrying quarks (or for each other) - the proton/electron
pair, and the electron/electron neutrino pair are examples.
(See: ÒIdentity
Charge and the Weak ForceÓ.) The entire elaborate
mechanism of the weak force (including the Higgs boson and the
massive IVBs) is dedicated to the production of invariant,
single elementary particles in any time or place - particles
which can swap places (if necessary) with those created during
the ÒBig BangÓ. (See: ÒThe Higgs Boson
and the Weak Force IVBsÓ.)

The gluon field of the strong force is required to
maintain the wholeness of quantum charge units despite the
fractional charges borne by quarks. (See: ÒThe Strong Force:
Two ExpressionsÓ.) The quark fractional charges are in
turn necessary to the initial symmetry-breaking of the
primordial particle-antiparticle pairs (since they allow
electrically neutral quark combinations). The asymmetric
production of matter from light during the Big Bang is thought
to originate with the (unexplained) asymmetric decay of
leptoquark-antileptoquark pairs, resulting in a tiny residue of
matter. (See: ÒMaterial
Expressions of Local Gauge Symmetry: Parts 2, 3, 4Ó.) (See
also: ÒThe
Origin of Matter and InformationÓ.) It has been suggested
that the three-family structure of the quark and lepton fields
may be necessary to the primordial asymmetry between matter and
antimatter. (See: Frank Close: Antimatter, 2009, Oxford Univ.
Press.)

The material system is conserved in spite of its
imperfection; charge conservation and charge invariance assure
that the symmetry debt of light will be paid in full,
eventually, at some future time. The grandest expression of cosmic dedication to
charge and symmetry conservation is the gravitational creation
of time from space, for without the time dimension charge
conservation for the future payment of symmetry debts would have
no meaning. Our cosmos is a Òbuy-now, pay laterÓ system of
charge conservation and symmetry debts which runs on the credit
card of gravity. The entropy-interest on the symmetry debt of
matter is paid by gravitation; gravity creates time from space,
decelerating the cosmic expansion in consequence. Hence the
entropy-energy to produce matterÕs time dimension and the
expansion of history is withdrawn from the expansion of space,
which in turn is driven by the intrinsic (entropic) motion of
light. It is therefore the expansive entropic energy of lightÕs
spatial dimension which ultimately pays for the expansive
entropic energy of matterÕs historical dimension, just as the
raw energy of light pays for the raw energy of mass (hv = mcc). (The
recently observed ÒaccelerationÓ of the universal spatial
expansion is caused by the relaxation of the global
gravitational field, as mass is converted to light by various
astrophysical processes Ð which may include the decay of Òdark
matterÓ.) (See: ÒA Spacetime Map
of the UniverseÓ.) ÒEvery jot and tittle of the law will
be fulfilledÕ; and ÒNot a sparrow falls but the Father knowsÓ
(an intuitive expression of the operation of conservation law,
anciently recognized).

**Causality: Time Sequence and Energy
Conservation Ð Metrics and Gauges**

In the ÒTetrahedron
ModelÓ we attempt to characterize reality in its most
essential features Ð much as the Greeks did with their Òfour
elementsÓ Ð except the present effort is in a ÒscientificÓ or
rational mode. The ÒtrinityÓ of conservation laws which apply to
the transformation of light (free electromagnetic energy) into
matter (bound electromagnetic energy) are conventional ÒStandard
ModelÓ or ÒtextbookÓ principles: 1) the Conservation of Energy
(1st law of thermodynamics); 2) Entropy (2^{nd} law of
thermodynamics); 3) the Conservation of Symmetry (NoetherÕs
Theorem). Our 4^{th} and final choice is our general
characterization of matter, the product of the transformation of
free electromagnetic energy to a bound, atomic form. Two
possibilities suggest themselves for conservation laws or
principles which are uniquely associated with or characterize
matter: 1) Causality (law of cause and effect Ð causes must
precede effects and every effect must have a cause); and 2)
Information (which also is associated with a conservation law in
quantum mechanics to the effect that information cannot be
destroyed) (see Leonard SusskindÕs book: *The Black Hole War*, 2008, Little, Brown and Co.). Of
these two I have chosen causality, because causality implies
information but the reverse in not true, at least to my
thinking; therefore, the causal law is the stronger and more
encompassing principle. Not that we can do without information
Ð we must have it as a corollary of causality. We cannot have
a causal law unless we also have the information which
identifies both the cause and the effect (in Quantum Mechanics
part of this information may be hidden or ÒunavailableÓ in
ÒcomplementaryÓ dyads such as position/momentum or
energy/time). Therefore, when we characterize matter with
causality we will sometimes specifically append information
(as Causality-Information), but we will always imply that
causality carries with it the associated concept of
information. Information becomes a primary conceptual
principle in biological systems: biology is the information
pathway whereby the Cosmos achieves self-awareness and
explores its creative potential. (See: ÒThe Information
PathwayÓ.)

Causality implies the existence of a temporal
metric which orders the linear sequence of events, but this
metric must be created with matter since the time dimension does
not exist for non-local light. Time and place go together, and
the task of creating a time dimension from matter falls to
gravity. All massive energy forms must produce a gravitational
field because gravity is how matter produces its time dimension.
(All bound energy forms carry the gravitational ÒlocationÓ
charge (Gm), which is the symmetry debt of the non-local
distribution of lightÕs energy Ð a spatial distribution symmetry
obviously broken by immobile matter. LightÕs non-local symmetric
energy state is gauged by ÒcÓ, and matterÕs gravitational
ÒlocationÓ charge is gauged by ÒGÓ.) Gravity produces time by the annihilation
of space and the extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal
residue. Time itself is the active principle of the
gravitational ÒlocationÓ charge. (See: ÒThe
Conversion of Space to TimeÓ.)

Time is necessary for bound energy for numerous reasons
of energy conservation. The energy content of matter varies with
its relative motion and this requires a time dimension for
accounting purposes. Causality also is required by energy
conservation: causes must precede effects or there will be no
source of energy to produce the effect. The time dimension of
bound energy is also the entropy drive of bound energy Ð
converted by gravity from the entropy drive of free energy (the
intrinsic motion of light). The intrinsic motion of matterÕs
time dimension is the entropy drive of matter and expansive
history, the gravitationally converted and conserved intrinsic
motion of light (the entropy drive of expansive space). Gravity
is the force which mediates between these two universal,
primordial entropy drives, one spatial for free electromagnetic
energy, and one temporal for bound electromagnetic energy. (See:
ÒA Description
of GravitationÓ.) Gravity is weak because it creates only
enough time to satisfy the entropic drive of matterÕs ephemeral
Òpresent momentÓ Ð not matterÕs associated historical domain.
(See: ÒProton
Decay and the Heat Death of the CosmosÓ.)

The gravitational, temporal metric of matter is
superimposed upon the spatial metric of light, producing a
composite metric of spacetime which governs our compound world
of light and matter. (The ÒmetricÓ is the measured relationship
between the spatial and temporal dimensions. In our
electromagnetic system of spacetime, as gauged (regulated) by
Òvelocity cÓ, one second of temporal duration is metrically
equivalent to 300,000 kilometers of distance.) The spatial
universe expands more slowly due to the presence of matter and
its associated gravitational field Ð historic spacetime expands
more slowly than pure space, while a gravitational version of
ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ protects the local value of velocity c,
causality, and the ÒIntervalÓ. Clocks run slow and meter sticks
shrink in a gravitational field; there is also a gravitational
Doppler effect. However, in free fall or orbit, clocks and meter
sticks are unaffected. Measurements of velocity c at any given
location within a gravitational field (or elsewhere) always give
the same invariant value, because local clocks and meter sticks
are affected in such a (covariant) way as to maintain the
invariance of c and safeguard the ÒIntervalÓ and the principle
of causality (and hence also energy conservation). There can
only be a single metric and hence a single value of c (the
metric gauge) at a single location in spacetime. Comparative
ÒverticalÓ measurements, however, (higher and lower in the
gravitational field) will reveal differences in the metric
scale, due to the varying strength of the gravitational field.
The gravitational flow can be thought of as a response by
spacetime to this ÒwarpedÓ metric in the direction of ÒcheaperÓ
energy (due to the slower clock).
From another perspective that amounts to the same thing,
I prefer to think of the gravitational flow as caused or induced
by the intrinsic motion of time: *a gravitational field is
the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time*. (See: ÒThe
Conversion of Space to TimeÓ.)

*
*In weak fields (as
on planet Earth), gravity only pays the entropy "interest" on
the symmetry debt carried by matter, converting space to time,
providing an alternative entropic dimension in which charge
conservation can be expressed (entropy debts, like energy
debts, must always be paid immediately). In stronger fields,
gravity also pays the "principal" of matter's symmetry debt,
converting mass to light, as in our Sun (partially), and in
Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (completely)
(symmetry debts can be paid at any future time Ð unlike energy
or entropy debts). The second reaction reverses the effect of
the first. (See: ÒGravity,
Entropy, and ThermodynamicsÓ.) (See also: ÒExtending
EinsteinÕs Equivalence PrincipleÓ.)

Many if not most of the known characteristics of the
forces can be derived from the various conservation and other
requirements which must be met by any universal material system
which successfully manifests (can break symmetry initially, but
nevertheless observes conservation and eventually returns to its
origin). The ultimate unity of the forces subsists in the fact
that matter is a bound state of transformed and conserved light,
and all matterÕs charges Ð and hence their associated forces Ð
are symmetry debts of light awaiting payment through time.
Understanding the nature of the symmetry debt of each charge and
how it may be repaid is a major step toward comprehending the
Unified Field Theory. (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field TheoryÓ; see also: ÒCurrents of
Symmetry and EntropyÓ; see also: ÒThe
Tetrahedrom Model in the Context of a Complete Conservation
CycleÓ.)

The Unified field Theory can be approached or modeled in
many ways. Below I list a ÒcascadeÓ of effects beginning with
the birth of the universe in the ÒBig BangÓ and continuing to
the eventual repayment of all symmetry and entropy debts by the
actions of the four forces (matter-antimatter annihilation,
proton decay, and HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes).
(See: ÒTable
of the Higgs CascadeÓ; and ÒThe Higgs Boson
and the Weak Force IVBsÓ.)

1) ÒLife-friendlyÓ physical constants (c, G,
e, h, etc.) Ð acquired from the Multiverse as a random sample of
infinite possibilities (ÒAnthropic PrincipleÓ). Requirement of
zero net energy and charge and complete conservation capability
in order to manifest. (Seen as matter-antimatter particle pairs
and free vs bound electromagnetic energy (hv = mcc)). Negative
energy supplied by gravitation and antimatter (in
particle-antiparticle pairs). MatterÕs negative gravitational
energy is equal to its positive rest-mass energy.

2) Requirement for symmetry-breaking of
primordial particle-antiparticle pairs. Seen as fractional
charges of quarks (to provide electrically neutral nuclear
combinations), and as alternative charge carriers to circumvent
antimatter charge partners. (Leptons, ÒhandedÓ neutrinos; the
proton/electron combination, etc.). Seen also as the weak force
asymmetry in decays of electrically neutral
leptoquark-antileptoquark pairs (producing a net residue of
matter). Perhaps seen also in the three-family structure of
elementary particle fields thought necessary to produce the
primordial matter-antimatter asymmetry. (See: ÒThe Origin of
Matter and InformationÓ.)

3) Requirement to conserve the raw energy,
symmetry, and entropy of light in matter (seen as mass, charge,
time). NoetherÕs Theorem. *The charges of matter are the
symmetry debts of light. *Symmetry
debts may be held in time for future payment (charge
conservation); energy and entropy debts must be paid
immediately (mass/momentum/time equivalent energy and
dimensionality)*.*
Gravity is both a symmetry and an entropy debt of light,
creating matterÕs time dimension by the annihilation of space
(hence conserving lightÕs entropy drive), and conserving
lightÕs symmetry by the conversion of bound to free energy
(many astrophysical processes).* *

4) Requirement to maintain charge invariance
and protect the original value of symmetry debts (through time,
despite entropy and relative motion). Seen in Quantum Mechanics
as quantized, conserved, invariant charges which allow exact
replication and hence conservation (via the principle of charge
conservation). Weak force production of single, invariant
elementary particles via massive IVBs (Intermediate Vector
Bosons) which recreate ÒBig BangÓ force unity symmetry states
(all electrons (and any other elementary particles) must be
identical to all others of their kind, including those created
eons ago in the ÒBig BangÓ). Elementary particles are always
created from particle-antiparticle pairs, which exist as
potential forms of bound electromagnetic energy in the ÒvacuumÓ
or spacetime metric Ð this is the necessary basis of their
uniformity. Whereas the electromagnetic force only creates
particle-antiparticle pairs, the weak force only creates single
particles, which is why it must reproduce the initial
environmental conditions of the Big Bang via the Higgs boson
(scalar) and the massive IVBs (transformation
mechanism). Other Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ forces (ÒholdingÓ
forces) include: time and magnetism (energy and charge
conservation for relative motion); quark confinement to whole
quantum unit charges; ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ for massive objects
in relative motion and in gravitational fields (clocks run slow
and meter sticks shrink Ð protecting causality, velocity c, and
the ÒIntervalÓ). (See: ÒLocal vs Global
Gauge Symmetry in the Tetrahedron Model: Part 1Ó; and Material Effects
of Local Gauge Symmetry: Parts 2, 3, 4Ó.)

5) Evolutionary and life forces Ð information
and fractal algorithm; origin of life via universal 4x3 fractal
algorithm; purpose of life: the universe becomes self-aware and
explores itself, including its creative potential, which expands
through life, evolution, and humanity. (See: ÒDarwin, Newton,
and the Origin of LifeÓ.)

6) Requirement to pay symmetry debts Ð the
four forces are demands for payment of matterÕs symmetry debts.
Matter-antimatter annihilation; fusion/fission; proton decay;
HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ. The Sun is a local, partial
example of this spontaneous process. Gravity creates time from
space and vice versa (in the conversion of mass to light);
gravity is a symmetry and an entropy debt of lightÕs non-local
symmetric energy state. (The intrinsic motion of light (entropy
drive) and the Ònon-localÓ distributional symmetry of light are
both gauged (regulated) by Òvelocity cÓ. Light has no spacetime
location; lightÕs ÒIntervalÓ = zero). GravityÕs ÒlocationÓ
charge (of which time is the active principle) conserves both
lightÕs entropy drive and lightÕs non-local distributional
symmetry: lightÕs entropy drive is conserved immediately (as
time), and lightÕs non-local distributional symmetry is
conserved eventually (through the conversion of mass to light in
stars and via HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes).
(See: ÒThe
Double Conservation Role of GravityÓ.) The dimensions of
spacetime are conservation domains for free and bound
electromagnetic energy, produced by the intrinsic (entropic)
motions of light, time, and gravity. Time is gravityÕs gift to
matter and the Universe. *Gravity is matterÕs memory it once
was light.*

**Symmetry Debts of the 4 Forces (and
repayment modes)**

Light
creates matter which bears charges. *The charges of matter
are the symmetry debts of light.* Charges produce forces which are
demands for payment of the symmetry debt.

(See:
ÓTable of the
4 ForcesÓ (short form)) (See: ÒTable of the Four
ForcesÓ (long form)) (See: "A Periodic
Table of the Four Forces and the Unified Field Theory")

1) Electromagnetic Force: Electric Charge.
Photons. The symmetry debt of "absent antimatter" (the "Great
Asymmetry") - the broken matter-antimatter symmetry of the
primordial universe giving rise to our "matter-only" cosmos.
Associated with this "matter-only" asymmetry are many others,
notably including the dimensional asymmetry of time: the
2-D symmetric dimensionality of light vs 4-D asymmetric
dimensionality (time) of matter. Light is a two-dimensional
transverse wave. Repayment of the "absent antimatter" symmetry
debt is via exothermic
chemical reactions (partly) and matter-antimatter annihilations
(completely). Matter and antimatter will always annihilate each
other given any opportunity, and matter forever seeks antimatter
via the long-range electric force. (Suppression of the time dimension,
and suppression of the spontaneous manifestation of matter via
annihilation of ÒvirtualÓ particle-antiparticle pairs.)
(ÒVelocity cÓ is the universal gauge of electromagnetic energy
regulating the spatial metric, the entropy drive of light, the
non-local distributional symmetry of lightÕs energy, the
ÒIntervalÓ, causality, the equivalence of free and bound
electromagnetic energy, the value of electric charge, etc.)

2) Strong Force: Color Charge. Gluons.
Fractional vs whole quantum charge units. Quark fractional
charges vs leptonic (elementary) whole unit charges. Quark
confinement (to whole charge units) via the gluon field.
Repayment via the nucleosynthetic pathway (fusion) and proton
decay. (Suppression of free-roaming fractional charges which
could not be annihilated or otherwise balanced by the whole
charge units of leptonic
alternative charge carriers.)

3) Weak force: ÒIdentityÓ Charge (AKA
ÒflavorÓ or ÒnumberÓ charge). Distinguishable identity of
elementary massive leptonic particles (including leptoquarks) vs
anonymity of massless identical photons. (Neutrinos are ÒbareÓ
identity charges.) Repayment via radioactivity (fission),
particle and proton decay, and via contributions to the
nucleosynthetic pathway. Initial creation of matter in ÒBig
BangÓ; subsequent creation of
(single) invariant elementary particles; weak ÒidentityÓ
charge indicates appropriate antimatter partners for swift
annihilation reactions (left vs right-handed neutrinos and
ÒnumberÓ charges). (Suppression of non-conservable or
non-uniform elementary particles and reactions; distinguishes
matter vs antimatter via neutrino ÒhandednessÓ.)

4) Gravitational Force: ÒLocationÓ Charge.
Non-local (ÒglobalÓ) distributional symmetry of photonÕs energy
(due to intrinsic spatial motion c) vs asymmetric (ÒlocalÓ)
distribution of mass energy in particles (which lack any
intrinsic spatial motion). Due to the lack of a time dimension
and a spatial dimension (in the direction of propagation), the
photon has forever to go nowhere. Furthermore, due to the lack
of two dimensions, the photonÕs location in either 3 or 4
dimensions cannot be specified (light is a 2-dimensional
transverse wave; lightÕs intrinsic motion Òsweeps outÓ a 3^{rd}
spatial dimension). The photonÕs energy (in its own reference
frame) is therefore distributed symmetrically everywhere
simultaneously in space. Massive particles break this symmetry
because they lack intrinsic spatial motion of any kind and their
location in space and spacetime can therefore be specified Ð
breaking the distributional symmetry of the photonÕs energy and
giving rise to the gravitational ÒlocationÓ charge carried by
every massive particle and energy form (Gm). (The active
principle of the gravitational charge is time.) (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 1 and Part 2Ó.)
Repayment via the gravitational conversion of mass to light as
in the stars, supernovas, and quasars (partially), and via
HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes (completely).
(Suppression of ÒwormholesÓ, causality violations, and
connections to other universes - via the Òevent horizonÓ and the
central ÒsingularityÓ of black holes.)

The four forces can be related (in a general sense and
with some overlap) to the four conservation principles of the
ÒTetrahedron ModelÓ as follows:

1) Energy Conservation Ð light, free
electromagnetic energy: Electromagnetic Force;

2) Entropy Ð c, G, T (intrinsic motions of
light, gravity, time Ð space, spacetime, history): Gravitational
Force;

3) Symmetry Conservation Ð charge, charge
conservation, and symmetry-breaking: Weak Force;

4) Causality-Information Ð nuclear matter,
mass, bound electromagnetic energy: Strong Force.

The four forces help the system manifest through the Higgs Cascade in the form of
Òunified-force symmetric energy statesÓ which provide stages,
stepping stones, or energy plateaus (symmetry domains) in which
precisely replicable transformations (from greater to lesser
unified-force symmetry states) can occur, allowing the next
lower symmetric force domain to manifest in a reproducible,
conservable form (four stages: TOE (all forces unified; fermions
and bosons unified); GUT (strong and electroweak forces unified;
quarks and leptons unified); EW (electroweak unification; quark
families unified; lepton families unified); EM (electromagnetic
ground state; electric and magnetic forces unified). (See: ÒTable of the
Higgs CascadeÓ.) Once the ground state is reached, the
same four forces begin the slow but sure process of symmetry
debt payment, as outlined above. While this restoration of
symmetry is going on, there is plenty of time and energy
available for the evolution of life and the self-awareness and
self-exploration of the cosmos, including new creative modes.
The same information (charge) that conserves and restores
symmetry is used to create life, following the 4x3 fractal
information pathway. Human spirituality (including ethics) and
creativity (including aesthetics) are our most highly evolved
capacities; human appetites and destructiveness our least. (See:
ÒThe Fractal
Organization of NatureÓ.)

Finally, we ask why the universe bothers to exist at all?
Speaking philosophically, itÕs just that existence is so much
more interesting than non-existence. The ÒTrinityÓ gets bored of
its own perfection. And with so much creative energy in play,
spontaneous symmetry-breaking from the Multiverse is bound to
occur (Òeternal inflation?Ó). We are the means whereby the
universe experiences and looks at itself; it is therefore no
wonder that we often see an image of ourselves looking back.

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