A Short Course in the Unified Field Theory

John A. Gowan

(Revised June 2014)

email:

jag8@cornell.edu

johngowan@earthlink.net

The conceptual basis of the
Unified Field Theory as presented in these pages is summarized
below:

**Abstract**

Atomic matter is an asymmetric, bound, massive, and temporally (historically) conserved form of light (as demonstrated by antimatter annihilation). In matter, light's raw energy is conserved as mass and momentum; light's symmetry is conserved as charge and spin; light's spatial entropy drive (intrinsic motion) is conserved as matter's historic entropy drive (intrinsic motion); light's spatial continuity is conserved as matter's historical causality. Gravity converts light's spatial entropic domain into matter's temporal entropic domain, and vice versa (gravity creates time from space and vice-versa). Energy Conservation, Symmetry Conservation, Entropy, and Causality/Information are the four principle conservation parameters of the "Tetrahedron Model", and constitute the foundations of natural or physical law which underlie and support the Unified Field Theory of the four physical forces. (See: "The 'Tetrahedron Model' of the Unified Field Theory"). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The requirement of primordial symmetry-breaking (creating matter from light) followed by the maintenance of charge invariance (producing the phenomena of Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ), are also key conceptual elements.

In this paper I explore the connections between of the four physical forces, with special emphasis upon their symmetry relations under the unifying mantle of Noether's symmetry conservation theorem - which I paraphrase as:

(Abstract revised Oct. 2016.)

See: the "Tetrahedron Model" (simple version) (diagram)

The Tetrahedron Model (complete version) (diagram)

*What we see is not Nature, but
Nature exposed to our method of questioning* - W. C. Heisenberg

Table of
Contents:

Abstract

Introduction

__The Conservation and Invariance of
Charge__

__Symmetry Debts of the Four forces__

**Introduction**

Our universe consists
of a mixture of free and bound electromagnetic energy (light
and matter), set in
gravitational spacetime, governed and regulated by
various conservation laws and forces which determine both its
origin and destiny. This paper is an abbreviated discussion of
our physical system, its evolution and laws, and how they are
integrated into what is known as the Unified
Field Theory. This paper is not intended to stand alone.
For an in-depth discussion of the many concepts surveyed in
this article, the reader must see the supporting papers
referenced on my website. I am trying to reach a qualitative
conceptual unification only (not a quantitative mathematical
unification), and I will employ an evolutionary and a General
Systems approach to the subject. I am generally more
interested in *why* the
universe is as we find it, in terms of conservation laws,
rather than the mathematical details (the *how*) of its working Ð both because
others are (much!) better than I at the math, and these days
it is mostly the *why* which remains mysterious. Of
course, as we will see, the *why* and the *how* are usually intertwined.

Any manifest universe
must be capable of symmetry-breaking
plus complete self-conservation Ð that is, able to escape its
symmetric beginning, but also able to recycle itself,
returning to its origin under its own power, initiative, and
self-contained conservation principles Ð as a boomerang
returns to the hand that throws it. Thus we find that matter
is actually a bound form of light, enabling the material
universe - which originates as light - to return to light
(free vs bound electromagnetic energy). This is also why the
four forces Ð which constitute a final pathway for matter back
to light Ð must also be the initial pathway which leads from
light to matter. (See: ÒThe Higgs
Boson and the Evolutionary Eras of the CosmosÓ.)

** **

The Four
Conservation Principles governing the transformation of
light into matter and vice versa (See: ÒThe Tetrahedron
ModelÓ):

1) Energy Conservation:
conservation of raw energy. Energy may be transformed but
neither created nor destroyed. In the ÒBig BangÓ the raw
energy of light (free electromagnetic energy) is transformed
to the raw energy of matter and kinetic energy (ÒmassÓ --
bound electromagnetic energy): hv = mcc (DeBroglieÕs
equation).

2) Entropy: c, G, T Ð intrinsic
motion of light, gravity, and time. The dimensions are energy
conservation domains created by the primordial entropy drives
(intrinsic motions) of free and bound electromagnetic energy.
The intrinsic motion of light creates, expands, and cools
space; the intrinsic motion of time creates, expands, and
dilutes history, and decays matter; gravity mediates between
the entropic domains of space and history, creating time from
space (as on earth) and vice versa (as in the stars). Entropy
is the principle that allows us to use and transform energy
without violating energy conservation. The intrinsic motions
of light and time are metrically equivalent ÒinfiniteÓ
velocities (primordial entropy drives) protecting energy
conservation. (See: ÒSpatial vs
Temporal EntropyÓ.)

3) Symmetry Conservation (and
symmetry-breaking): NoetherÕs Theorem. *The charges of
matter are the symmetry debts of light.* Symmetric light produces
asymmetric matter (through primordial symmetry-breaking weak
force processes which separate matter from antimatter). In
consequence of symmetry-breaking, matter bears charges
(symmetry debts) which cause forces (forces represent the
demand for payment of the symmetry debts); forces act to
return matter to light, paying matterÕs symmetry debts, as
required by NoetherÕs Theorem. One charge exists for each
force, including gravity (ÒlocationÓ charge). The symmetry
of light is conserved no less than the raw energy of light.
Charge and symmetry conservation allow the transformation of
energy into ÒinformationÓ Ð just as entropy allows the
transformation of energy into ÒworkÓ. (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field TheoryÓ.)

4) Causality-Information: Law
of cause and effect Ð ÒkarmaÓ, history, historic spacetime.
Atoms, matter, mass. Free electromagnetic energy is
transformed into bound electromagnetic energy: E = hv; E =
mcc; hv = mcc (Planck; Einstein; DeBroglie). Matter is local,
causal, temporal and massive, bearing charges, information,
producing a gravitational field proportional to its bound
energy (Gm), and moving with an intrinsic (entropic)
historical motion T (time) (see: ÒThe Time
TrainÓ). Light is non-local, acausal, atemporal, and
massless, bearing no charges or information, producing no
gravitational field, and moving with an intrinsic (entropic)
spatial motion c (Òvelocity of lightÓ). History is the
temporal analog of space. From information, charge, and
energy, matter evolves life through time, an inevitable
chemical reaction guided by the 4x3 fractal algorithm of the
Cosmos (See: ÒNatureÕs
Fractal PathwayÓ). The role of charge and information is to guide the
return of matter to light, and to produce life, the energy
form by which the universe knows and experiences itself, and
eventually fulfills its creative potential. (See: ÒThe Human
ConnectionÓ.)

**The Conservation and
Invariance of Charge**

The transformation of
light to matter and back again (symmetry breaking and symmetry
restoration) must satisfy specific conservation regulations or
principles, including - (in our case but not generally) Ð
Òlife friendlyÓ physical constants (the low value of G in our
cosmos would be an example), which allow (among other things)
the slow return of the material system to light, providing
time for the evolution of life. The extended time interval
between the initiation and destruction of our universe
requires compensating or ÒholdingÓ actions by the return
forces which maintain the material system in a state of
perpetual readiness to return to light (ready to pay or redeem
upon demand the symmetry debt of light as carried by matter),
and this despite being embedded in a hostile, temporal
environment. Examples of
obstacles to
conservation in our material world include: an environment of
relative rather than absolute motion; a metric dominated by G
rather than c; massive rather than massless forms of energy;
fractional rather than unitary charges (quarks); particles
with differing identities (ÒflavorsÓ) (leptons, baryons)
rather than ÒanonymousÓ identical particles (photons). In sum:
temporal, local, causal, massive, and charged particles
producing gravitational fields, relative motions, with diverse
ÒflavorsÓ or identities (quarks and leptons) rather than
atemporal, non-local, acausal, massless, uncharged anonymous
particles producing no gravitational fields and having
intrinsic absolute motion (photons).

In addition to
actually paying the symmetry debts represented by charge, the
4 forces of physics also conspire to maintain the invariance
of charge and other conserved parameters despite the
imperfections of the material environment (the Òholding
actionsÓ mentioned above), and in this role are designated
Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ forces. (See: ÒGlobal vs
Local Gauge Symmetry and the Tetrahedron ModelÓ: Part 1.)
It will be appreciated that the maintenance of charge
invariance is a necessary corollary of charge conservation,
and that this is not a trivial matter in our imperfect world
of matter, time, gravitation, relative motion, and entropic
expansion. Thus, in the electromagnetic force we find
magnetism, which rises and falls with the increase or decrease
of the relative motion of electrically charged particles,
maintaining thereby the invariance of electric charge. The
relative motion of material objects in spacetime likewise
produces ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ, the co-varying effects of time
and space described by EinsteinÕs Special Relativity, which
operate to protect causality, velocity c, and the invariance
of the ÒIntervalÓ.

Time itself is an
alternative form of entropy drive produced by gravity (via the
annihilation of space), to compensate for matterÕs lack of
intrinsic spatial motion and the loss of lightÕs non-local
distributional symmetry in immobile, massive particles.
Because the energy content of massive particles varies with
their velocity, the relative motion of massive particles would
be impossible without a time dimension to accommodate such
variable energy accounts. The historical domain likewise
exists to accommodate the causal relations of matter, as also
necessitated by energy conservation.

The primordial requirement of symmetry-breaking (the
escape of matter from light and annihilating
particle-antiparticle pairs) followed by charge conservation
has left an indelible impress upon the composition and
character of the atomic system, including charge quantization,
the fractional charges of the quarks, and the division of
atomic matter into mass-carrying quarks (nuclear material) and
charge-carrying electrons and neutrinos (hadrons vs leptons). The three-family
structure of the quark and lepton fields may be a further
example.

The neutrino is an
alternative form of ÒidentityÓ charge produced by the weak
force to compensate for the loss of the photonÕs symmetric
ÒanonymityÓ by the individually distinguishable spectrum of
massive elementary particles. (See: ÒThe Particle
TableÓ.) The alternative identity charges of the
neutrinos (including their ÒhandednessÓ) are crucially
necessary to allow ÒBig BangÓ symmetry-breaking and the escape
of the material system of quarks and electrons from the
otherwise mutual destruction of annihilating matter-antimatter
particle pairs. The leptonic families in general act as
alternative charge carriers for the electric and identity
charges of the mass-carrying quarks (or for each other) - the
proton/electron pair, and the electron/electron neutrino pair
are examples. (See: ÒIdentity
Charge and the Weak ForceÓ.) The entire elaborate
mechanism of the weak force (including the Higgs boson and the
massive IVBs) is dedicated to the production of invariant,
single elementary particles in any time or place - particles
which can swap places (if necessary) with those created during
the ÒBig BangÓ. (See: ÒThe Higgs Boson
and the Weak Force IVBsÓ.)

The gluon field of the
strong force is required to maintain the wholeness of quantum
charge units despite the fractional charges borne by quarks.
(See: ÒThe
Strong Force: Two ExpressionsÓ.) The quark fractional
charges are in turn necessary to the initial symmetry-breaking
of the primordial particle-antiparticle pairs (since they
allow electrically neutral quark combinations). The asymmetric
production of matter from light during the Big Bang is thought
to originate with the (unexplained) asymmetric decay of
leptoquark-antileptoquark pairs, resulting in a tiny residue
of matter. (See: ÒMaterial
Expressions of Local Gauge Symmetry: Parts 2, 3, 4Ó.)
(See also: ÒThe
Origin of Matter and InformationÓ.) It has been
suggested that the three-family structure of the quark and
lepton fields may be necessary to the primordial asymmetry
between matter and antimatter. (See: Frank Close: Antimatter,
2009, Oxford Univ. Press.)

The material system is
conserved in spite of its imperfection; charge conservation
and charge invariance assure that the symmetry debt of light
will be paid in full, eventually, at some future time. The
grandest expression of cosmic
dedication to charge and symmetry conservation is the
gravitational creation of time from space, for without the
time dimension charge conservation for the future payment of
symmetry debts would have no meaning. Our cosmos is a
Òbuy-now, pay laterÓ system of charge conservation and
symmetry debts which runs on the credit card of gravity. The
entropy-interest on the symmetry debt of matter is paid by
gravitation; gravity creates time from space, decelerating the
cosmic expansion in consequence. Hence the entropy-energy to
produce matterÕs time dimension and the expansion of history
is withdrawn from the expansion of space, which in turn is
driven by the intrinsic (entropic) motion of light. It is
therefore the expansive entropic energy of lightÕs spatial
dimension which ultimately pays for the expansive entropic
energy of matterÕs historical dimension, just as the raw
energy of light pays for the raw energy of mass (hv = mcc).
(The recently observed ÒaccelerationÓ of the universal spatial
expansion is caused by the relaxation of the global
gravitational field, as mass is converted to light by various
astrophysical processes Ð which may include the decay of Òdark
matterÓ.) (See: ÒA Spacetime
Map of the UniverseÓ.) ÒEvery jot and tittle of the law
will be fulfilledÕ; and ÒNot a sparrow falls but the Father
knowsÓ (an intuitive expression of the operation of
conservation law, anciently recognized).

**Causality: Time Sequence and
Energy Conservation Ð Metrics and Gauges**

In the ÒTetrahedron
ModelÓ we attempt to characterize reality in its most
essential features Ð much as the Greeks did with their Òfour
elementsÓ Ð except the present effort is in a ÒscientificÓ or
rational mode. The ÒtrinityÓ of conservation laws which apply
to the transformation of light (free electromagnetic energy)
into matter (bound electromagnetic energy) are conventional
ÒStandard ModelÓ or ÒtextbookÓ principles: 1) the Conservation
of Energy (1st law of thermodynamics); 2) Entropy (2^{nd}
law of thermodynamics); 3) the Conservation of Symmetry
(NoetherÕs Theorem). Our 4^{th} and final choice is
our general characterization of matter, the product of the
transformation of free electromagnetic energy to a bound,
atomic form. Two possibilities suggest themselves for
conservation laws or principles which are uniquely associated
with or characterize matter: 1) Causality (law of cause and
effect Ð causes must precede effects and every effect must
have a cause); and 2) Information (which also is associated
with a conservation law in quantum mechanics to the effect
that information cannot be destroyed) (see Leonard SusskindÕs
book: *The Black Hole War*, 2008, Little, Brown and Co.). Of
these two I have chosen causality, because causality implies
information but the reverse in not true, at least to my
thinking; therefore, the causal law is the stronger and more
encompassing principle. Not that we can do without
information Ð we must have it as a corollary of causality.
We cannot have a causal law unless we also have the
information which identifies both the cause and the effect
(in Quantum Mechanics part of this information may be hidden
or ÒunavailableÓ in ÒcomplementaryÓ dyads such as
position/momentum or energy/time). Therefore, when we
characterize matter with causality we will sometimes
specifically append information (as Causality-Information),
but we will always imply that causality carries with it the
associated concept of information. Information becomes a
primary conceptual principle in biological systems: biology
is the information pathway whereby the Cosmos achieves
self-awareness and explores its creative potential. (See: ÒThe Information
PathwayÓ.)

Causality implies the
existence of a temporal metric which orders the linear
sequence of events, but this metric must be created with
matter since the time dimension does not exist for non-local
light. Time and place go together, and the task of creating a
time dimension from matter falls to gravity. All massive
energy forms must produce a gravitational field because
gravity is how matter produces its time dimension. (All bound
energy forms carry the gravitational ÒlocationÓ charge (Gm),
which is the symmetry debt of the non-local distribution of
lightÕs energy Ð a spatial distribution symmetry obviously
broken by immobile matter. LightÕs non-local symmetric energy
state is gauged by ÒcÓ, and matterÕs gravitational ÒlocationÓ
charge is gauged by ÒGÓ.)
Gravity produces time by the annihilation of space and
the extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal residue.
Time itself is the active principle of the gravitational
ÒlocationÓ charge. (See: ÒThe
Conversion of Space to TimeÓ.)

Time is necessary for
bound energy for numerous reasons of energy conservation. The
energy content of matter varies with its relative motion and
this requires a time dimension for accounting purposes.
Causality also is required by energy conservation: causes must
precede effects or there will be no source of energy to
produce the effect. The time dimension of bound energy is also
the entropy drive of bound energy Ð converted by gravity from
the entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of
light). The intrinsic motion of matterÕs time dimension is the
entropy drive of matter and expansive history, the
gravitationally converted and conserved intrinsic motion of
light (the entropy drive of expansive space). Gravity is the
force which mediates between these two universal, primordial
entropy drives, one spatial for free electromagnetic energy,
and one temporal for bound electromagnetic energy. (See: ÒA Description
of GravitationÓ.) Gravity is weak because it creates
only enough time to satisfy the entropic drive of matterÕs
ephemeral Òpresent momentÓ Ð not matterÕs associated
historical domain. (See: ÒProton Decay
and the Heat Death of the CosmosÓ.)

The gravitational,
temporal metric of matter is superimposed upon the spatial
metric of light, producing a composite metric of spacetime
which governs our compound world of light and matter. (The
ÒmetricÓ is the measured relationship between the spatial and
temporal dimensions. In our electromagnetic system of
spacetime, as gauged (regulated) by Òvelocity cÓ, one second
of temporal duration is metrically equivalent to 300,000
kilometers of distance.) The spatial universe expands more
slowly due to the presence of matter and its associated
gravitational field Ð historic spacetime expands more slowly
than pure space, while a gravitational version of ÒLorentz
InvarianceÓ protects the local value of velocity c, causality,
and the ÒIntervalÓ. Clocks run slow and meter sticks shrink in
a gravitational field; there is also a gravitational Doppler
effect. However, in free fall or orbit, clocks and meter
sticks are unaffected. Measurements of velocity c at any given
location within a gravitational field (or elsewhere) always
give the same invariant value, because local clocks and meter
sticks are affected in such a (covariant) way as to maintain
the invariance of c and safeguard the ÒIntervalÓ and the
principle of causality (and hence also energy conservation).
There can only be a single metric and hence a single value of
c (the metric gauge) at a single location in spacetime.
Comparative ÒverticalÓ measurements, however, (higher and
lower in the gravitational field) will reveal differences in
the metric scale, due to the varying strength of the
gravitational field. The gravitational flow can be thought of
as a response by spacetime to this ÒwarpedÓ metric in the
direction of ÒcheaperÓ energy (due to the slower clock). From another
perspective that amounts to the same thing, I prefer to think
of the gravitational flow as caused or induced by the
intrinsic motion of time: *a gravitational field is the
spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time*. (See: ÒThe
Conversion of Space to TimeÓ.)

* *In weak fields (as on planet
Earth), gravity only pays the entropy "interest" on the
symmetry debt carried by matter, converting space to time,
providing an alternative entropic dimension in which charge
conservation can be expressed (entropy debts, like energy
debts, must always be paid immediately). In stronger fields,
gravity also pays the "principal" of matter's symmetry debt,
converting mass to light, as in our Sun (partially), and in
Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (completely)
(symmetry debts can be paid at any future time Ð unlike
energy or entropy debts). The second reaction reverses the
effect of the first. (See: ÒGravity,
Entropy, and ThermodynamicsÓ.) (See also: ÒExtending
EinsteinÕs Equivalence PrincipleÓ.)

Many if not most of
the known characteristics of the forces can be derived from
the various conservation and other requirements which must be
met by any universal material system which successfully
manifests (can break symmetry initially, but nevertheless
observes conservation and eventually returns to its origin).
The ultimate unity of the forces subsists in the fact that
matter is a bound state of transformed and conserved light,
and all matterÕs charges Ð and hence their associated forces Ð
are symmetry debts of light awaiting payment through time.
Understanding the nature of the symmetry debt of each charge
and how it may be repaid is a major step toward comprehending
the Unified Field Theory. (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field TheoryÓ; see also: ÒCurrents of
Symmetry and EntropyÓ; see also: ÒThe
Tetrahedrom Model in the Context of a Complete Conservation
CycleÓ.)

The Unified field
Theory can be approached or modeled in many ways. Below I list
a ÒcascadeÓ of effects beginning with the birth of the
universe in the ÒBig BangÓ and continuing to the eventual
repayment of all symmetry and entropy debts by the actions of
the four forces (matter-antimatter annihilation, proton decay,
and HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes). (See: ÒTable of
the Higgs CascadeÓ; and ÒThe Higgs Boson
and the Weak Force IVBsÓ.)

1) ÒLife-friendlyÓ physical
constants (c, G, e, h, etc.) Ð acquired from the Multiverse as
a random sample of infinite possibilities (ÒAnthropic
PrincipleÓ). Requirement of zero net energy and charge and
complete conservation capability in order to manifest. (Seen
as matter-antimatter particle pairs and free vs bound
electromagnetic energy (hv = mcc)). Negative energy supplied
by gravitation and antimatter (in particle-antiparticle
pairs). MatterÕs negative gravitational energy is equal to its
positive rest-mass energy.

2) Requirement for
symmetry-breaking of primordial particle-antiparticle pairs.
Seen as fractional charges of quarks (to provide electrically
neutral nuclear combinations), and as alternative charge
carriers to circumvent antimatter charge partners. (Leptons,
ÒhandedÓ neutrinos; the proton/electron combination, etc.).
Seen also as the weak force asymmetry in decays of
electrically neutral leptoquark-antileptoquark pairs
(producing a net residue of matter). Perhaps seen also in the
three-family structure of elementary particle fields thought
necessary to produce the primordial matter-antimatter
asymmetry. (See: ÒThe Origin of
Matter and InformationÓ.)

3) Requirement to conserve
the raw energy, symmetry, and entropy of light in matter (seen
as mass, charge, time). NoetherÕs Theorem. *The charges of
matter are the symmetry debts of light. *Symmetry debts may be held in
time for future payment (charge conservation); energy and
entropy debts must be paid immediately (mass/momentum/time
equivalent energy and dimensionality)*.* Gravity is both a symmetry and
an entropy debt of light, creating matterÕs time dimension
by the annihilation of space (hence conserving lightÕs
entropy drive), and conserving lightÕs symmetry by the
conversion of bound to free energy (many astrophysical
processes).* *

4) Requirement to maintain
charge invariance and protect the original value of symmetry
debts (through time, despite entropy and relative motion).
Seen in Quantum Mechanics as quantized, conserved, invariant
charges which allow exact replication and hence conservation
(via the principle of charge conservation). Weak force
production of single, invariant elementary particles via
massive IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) which recreate ÒBig
BangÓ force unity symmetry states (all electrons (and any
other elementary particles) must be identical to all others of
their kind, including those created eons ago in the ÒBig
BangÓ). Elementary particles are always created from
particle-antiparticle pairs, which exist as potential forms of
bound electromagnetic energy in the ÒvacuumÓ or spacetime
metric Ð this is the necessary basis of their uniformity.
Whereas the electromagnetic force only creates
particle-antiparticle pairs, the weak force only creates
single particles, which is why it must reproduce the initial
environmental conditions of the Big Bang via the Higgs boson
(scalar) and the massive IVBs (transformation
mechanism). Other Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ forces
(ÒholdingÓ forces) include: time and magnetism (energy and
charge conservation for relative motion); quark confinement to
whole quantum unit charges; ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ for massive
objects in relative motion and in gravitational fields (clocks
run slow and meter sticks shrink Ð protecting causality,
velocity c, and the ÒIntervalÓ). (See: ÒLocal vs
Global Gauge Symmetry in the Tetrahedron Model: Part 1Ó;
and Material
Effects of Local Gauge Symmetry: Parts 2, 3, 4Ó.)

5) Evolutionary and life
forces Ð information and fractal algorithm; origin of life via
universal 4x3 fractal algorithm; purpose of life: the universe
becomes self-aware and explores itself, including its creative
potential, which expands through life, evolution, and
humanity. (See: ÒDarwin, Newton,
and the Origin of LifeÓ.)

6) Requirement to pay
symmetry debts Ð the four forces are demands for payment of
matterÕs symmetry debts. Matter-antimatter annihilation;
fusion/fission; proton decay; HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ.
The Sun is a local, partial example of this spontaneous
process. Gravity creates time from space and vice versa (in
the conversion of mass to light); gravity is a symmetry and an
entropy debt of lightÕs non-local symmetric energy state. (The
intrinsic motion of light (entropy drive) and the Ònon-localÓ
distributional symmetry of light are both gauged (regulated)
by Òvelocity cÓ. Light has no spacetime location; lightÕs
ÒIntervalÓ = zero). GravityÕs ÒlocationÓ charge (of which time
is the active principle) conserves both lightÕs entropy drive
and lightÕs non-local distributional symmetry: lightÕs entropy
drive is conserved immediately (as time), and lightÕs
non-local distributional symmetry is conserved eventually
(through the conversion of mass to light in stars and via
HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes). (See: ÒThe Double
Conservation Role of GravityÓ.) The dimensions of
spacetime are conservation domains for free and bound
electromagnetic energy, produced by the intrinsic (entropic)
motions of light, time, and gravity. Time is gravityÕs gift to
matter and the Universe. *Gravity is matterÕs memory it
once was light.*

**Symmetry Debts of the 4
Forces (and repayment modes)**

Light creates matter which bears charges. *The
charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.* Charges produce forces which are
demands for payment of the symmetry debt.

(See: "Table of the
4 Forces" (short form)) (See: ÒTable of the
Four ForcesÓ (long form)) (See: "A Periodic
Table of the Four Forces and the Unified Field Theory")

1) Electromagnetic Force:
Electric Charge. Photons. The symmetry debt of "absent
antimatter" (the "Great Asymmetry") - the broken
matter-antimatter symmetry of the primordial universe giving
rise to our "matter-only" cosmos. Associated with this
"matter-only" asymmetry are many others, notably including the
dimensional asymmetry of time: the 2-D symmetric
dimensionality of light vs 4-D asymmetric dimensionality
(time) of matter. Light is a two-dimensional transverse wave.
Repayment of the "absent antimatter" symmetry debt is via exothermic chemical
reactions (partly) and matter-antimatter annihilations
(completely). Matter and antimatter will always annihilate
each other given any opportunity, and matter forever seeks
antimatter via the long-range electric force. (Suppression of the time dimension,
and suppression of the spontaneous manifestation of matter via
annihilation of ÒvirtualÓ particle-antiparticle pairs.)
(ÒVelocity cÓ is the universal gauge of electromagnetic energy
regulating the spatial metric, the entropy drive of light, the
non-local distributional symmetry of lightÕs energy, the
ÒIntervalÓ, causality, the equivalence of free and bound
electromagnetic energy, the value of electric charge, etc.)

2) Strong Force: Color
Charge. Gluons. Fractional vs whole quantum charge units.
Quark fractional charges vs leptonic (elementary) whole unit
charges. Quark confinement (to whole charge units) via the
gluon field. Repayment via the nucleosynthetic pathway
(fusion) and proton decay. (Suppression of free-roaming
fractional charges which could not be annihilated or otherwise
balanced by the whole charge units of leptonic
alternative charge carriers.)

3) Weak force: ÒIdentityÓ
Charge (AKA ÒflavorÓ or ÒnumberÓ charge). Distinguishable
identity of elementary massive leptonic particles (including
leptoquarks) vs anonymity of massless identical photons.
(Neutrinos are ÒbareÓ identity charges.) Repayment via
radioactivity (fission), particle and proton decay, and via
contributions to the nucleosynthetic pathway. Initial creation
of matter in ÒBig BangÓ; subsequent creation of (single) invariant
elementary particles; weak ÒidentityÓ charge indicates
appropriate antimatter partners for swift annihilation
reactions (left vs right-handed neutrinos and ÒnumberÓ
charges). (Suppression of non-conservable or non-uniform
elementary particles and reactions; distinguishes matter vs
antimatter via neutrino ÒhandednessÓ.)

4) Gravitational Force:
ÒLocationÓ Charge. Non-local (ÒglobalÓ) distributional
symmetry of photonÕs energy (due to intrinsic spatial motion
c) vs asymmetric (ÒlocalÓ) distribution of mass energy in
particles (which lack any intrinsic spatial motion). Due to
the lack of a time dimension and a spatial dimension (in the
direction of propagation), the photon has forever to go
nowhere. Furthermore, due to the lack of two dimensions, the
photonÕs location in either 3 or 4 dimensions cannot be
specified (light is a 2-dimensional transverse wave; lightÕs
intrinsic motion Òsweeps outÓ a 3^{rd} spatial
dimension). The photonÕs energy (in its own reference frame)
is therefore distributed symmetrically everywhere
simultaneously in space. Massive particles break this symmetry
because they lack intrinsic spatial motion of any kind and
their location in space and spacetime can therefore be
specified Ð breaking the distributional symmetry of the
photonÕs energy and giving rise to the gravitational
ÒlocationÓ charge carried by every massive particle and energy
form (Gm). (The active principle of the gravitational charge
is time.) (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 1 and Part 2Ó.)
Repayment via the gravitational conversion of mass to light as
in the stars, supernovas, and quasars (partially), and via
HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes (completely).
(Suppression of ÒwormholesÓ, causality violations, and
connections to other universes - via the Òevent horizonÓ and
the central ÒsingularityÓ of black holes.)

The four forces can be
related (in a general sense and with some overlap) to the four
conservation principles of the ÒTetrahedron ModelÓ as follows:

1) Energy Conservation Ð
light, free electromagnetic energy: Electromagnetic Force;

2) Entropy Ð c, G, T
(intrinsic motions of light, gravity, time Ð space, spacetime,
history): Gravitational Force;

3) Symmetry Conservation Ð
charge, charge conservation, and symmetry-breaking: Weak
Force;

4) Causality-Information Ð
nuclear matter, mass, bound electromagnetic energy: Strong
Force.

The four forces help
the system manifest through the Higgs
Cascade in the form of Òunified-force symmetric energy
statesÓ which provide stages, stepping stones, or energy
plateaus (symmetry domains) in which precisely replicable
transformations (from greater to lesser unified-force symmetry
states) can occur, allowing the next lower symmetric force
domain to manifest in a reproducible, conservable form (four
stages: TOE (all forces unified; fermions and bosons unified);
GUT (strong and electroweak forces unified; quarks and leptons
unified); EW (electroweak unification; quark families unified;
lepton families unified); EM (electromagnetic ground state;
electric and magnetic forces unified). (See: ÒTable of
the Higgs CascadeÓ.) Once the ground state is reached,
the same four forces begin the slow but sure process of
symmetry debt payment, as outlined above. While this
restoration of symmetry is going on, there is plenty of time
and energy available for the evolution of life and the
self-awareness and self-exploration of the cosmos, including
new creative modes. The same information (charge) that
conserves and restores symmetry is used to create life,
following the 4x3 fractal information pathway. Human
spirituality (including ethics) and creativity (including
aesthetics) are our most highly evolved capacities; human
appetites and destructiveness our least. (See: ÒThe Fractal
Organization of NatureÓ.)

Finally, we ask why
the universe bothers to exist at all? Speaking
philosophically, itÕs just that existence is so much more
interesting than non-existence. The ÒTrinityÓ gets bored of
its own perfection. And with so much creative energy in play,
spontaneous symmetry-breaking from the Multiverse is bound to
occur (Òeternal inflation?Ó). We are the means whereby the
universe experiences and looks at itself; it is therefore no
wonder that we often see an image of ourselves looking back.

email:

jag8@cornell.edu

johngowan@earthlink.net