A Short Course in the Unified
Field Theory

John A. Gowan

(Revised March, 2010)

*What we
see is not Nature, but Nature exposed to our method of questioning* - W. C. Heisenberg

Table of Contents:

Abstract

Introduction

__The Tetrahedron Model__

__The Conservation and Invariance of Charge__

__Symmetry-Breaking__

__Charge Now – Pay Later__

__Causality__

__Gravity and Time__

Summary

__Symmetry Debts of the Four forces__

__Links__

**Abstract**

The
conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory as presented in these pages is
summarized below:

"Noether's Theorem" states
that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric
field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice
versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin;
in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial forces, and
conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate
as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the
light which created it. *The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of
light.* Charges produce forces which act to
return the material system to its original symmetric state, paying matter's
symmetry/entropy debts. Payment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction
producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter
annihilation reactions (electromagnetic force); radioactivity, fusion, particle
and proton decay (weak and strong nuclear forces); the nucleosynthetic pathway
of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes
(gravitational force). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated
with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a
conceptual unification.

The conservation of energy, symmetry,
entropy, and causality, plus the requirement of primordial symmetry-breaking followed by the maintenance of
charge invariance (including the phenomena of Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ), are all
key conceptual elements in the formulation of a Unified Field Theory.

See: the "Tetrahedron Model" (simple
version) (diagram)

The Tetrahedron Model (complete version)
(diagram)

**Introduction**

Our universe consists of a mixture of free and bound electromagnetic
energy (light and matter), set
in gravitational spacetime, governed and regulated by various conservation
laws and forces which determine both its origin and destiny. This paper is an
abbreviated discussion of our physical system, its evolution and laws, and how
they are integrated into what is known as the Unified Field Theory. This
paper is not intended to stand alone. For an in-depth discussion of the many
concepts surveyed in this article, the reader must see the supporting papers
referenced on my website. I am trying to reach a qualitative conceptual
unification only (not a quantitative mathematical unification), and I will
employ an evolutionary and a General Systems approach to the subject. I am
generally more interested in *why* the
universe is as we find it, in terms of conservation laws, rather than the
mathematical details (the *how*) of
its working – both because others are (much!) better than I at the math,
and these days it is mostly the *why*
which remains mysterious. Of course, as we will see, the *why* and the *how* are usually intertwined.

Any manifest universe must be capable of symmetry-breaking plus complete self-conservation –
that is, able to escape its symmetric beginning, but also able to recycle
itself, returning to its origin under its own power, initiative, and self-contained
conservation principles – as a boomerang returns to the hand that throws
it. Thus we find that matter is actually a bound form of light, enabling the
material universe - which originates as light - to return to light (free vs
bound electromagnetic energy). This is also why the four forces – which
constitute a final pathway for matter back to light – must also be the
initial pathway which leads from light to matter. (See: ÒThe Higgs Boson and the
Evolutionary Eras of the CosmosÓ.)

** **

**The Tetrahedron
Model**

The Four Conservation Principles
governing the transformation of light into matter and vice versa (See: ÒThe Tetrahedron ModelÓ):

1) Energy Conservation: conservation of raw energy. Energy
may be transformed but neither created nor destroyed. In the ÒBig BangÓ the raw
energy of light (free electromagnetic energy) is transformed to the raw energy
of matter and kinetic energy (ÒmassÓ -- bound electromagnetic energy): hv = mcc
(DeBroglieÕs equation).

2) Entropy: c,
G, T – intrinsic motion of light, gravity, and time. The dimensions are
energy conservation domains created by the primordial entropy drives (intrinsic
motions) of free and bound electromagnetic energy. The intrinsic motion of
light creates, expands, and cools space; the intrinsic motion of time creates,
expands, and dilutes history, and decays matter; gravity mediates between the
entropic domains of space and history, creating time from space (as on earth)
and vice versa (as in the stars). Entropy is the principle that allows us to
use and transform energy without violating energy conservation. The intrinsic
motions of light and time are metrically equivalent ÒinfiniteÓ velocities
(primordial entropy drives) protecting energy conservation. (See: ÒSpatial vs Temporal EntropyÓ.)

3) Symmetry Conservation (and symmetry-breaking): NoetherÕs
Theorem. *The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.* Symmetric light produces asymmetric matter (through
primordial symmetry-breaking weak force processes which separate matter from
antimatter). In consequence of symmetry-breaking, matter bears charges
(symmetry debts) which cause forces (forces represent the demand for payment of
the symmetry debts); forces act to return matter to light, paying matterÕs
symmetry debts, as required by NoetherÕs Theorem. One charge exists for each
force, including gravity (ÒlocationÓ charge). The symmetry of light is
conserved no less than the raw energy of light. Charge and symmetry
conservation allow the transformation of energy into ÒinformationÓ – just
as entropy allows the transformation of energy into ÒworkÓ. (See: ÒSymmetry Principles of the
Unified Field TheoryÓ.)

4) Causality-Information: Law of cause and effect –
ÒkarmaÓ, history, historic spacetime. Atoms, matter, mass. Free electromagnetic
energy is transformed into bound electromagnetic energy: E = hv; E = mcc; hv =
mcc (Planck; Einstein; DeBroglie). Matter is local, causal, temporal and
massive, bearing charges, information, producing a gravitational field
proportional to its bound energy (Gm), and moving with an intrinsic (entropic)
historical motion T (time) (see: ÒThe Time TrainÓ).
Light is non-local, acausal, atemporal, and massless, bearing no charges or
information, producing no gravitational field, and moving with an intrinsic
(entropic) spatial motion c (Òvelocity of lightÓ). History is the temporal
analog of space. From information, charge, and energy, matter evolves life
through time, an inevitable chemical reaction guided by the 4x3 fractal
algorithm of the Cosmos (See: ÒNatureÕs Fractal PathwayÓ).
The role of charge and information
is to guide the return of matter to light, and to produce life, the energy form
by which the universe knows and experiences itself, and eventually fulfills its
creative potential. (See: ÒThe
Human ConnectionÓ.)

**The Conservation
and Invariance of Charge**

The transformation of light to matter and back again (symmetry breaking
and symmetry restoration) must satisfy specific conservation regulations or
principles, including - (in our case but not generally) – Òlife friendlyÓ
physical constants (the low value of G in our cosmos would be an example),
which allow (among other things) the slow return of the material system to
light, providing time for the evolution of life. The extended time interval
between the initiation and destruction of our universe requires compensating or
ÒholdingÓ actions by the return forces which maintain the material system in a
state of perpetual readiness to return to light (ready to pay or redeem upon
demand the symmetry debt of light as carried by matter), and this despite being
embedded in a hostile, temporal environment. Examples of obstacles to conservation in our material world include: an
environment of relative rather than absolute motion; a metric dominated by G
rather than c; massive rather than massless forms of energy; fractional rather
than unitary charges (quarks); particles with differing identities (ÒflavorsÓ)
(leptons, baryons) rather than ÒanonymousÓ identical particles (photons). In
sum: temporal, local, causal, massive, and charged particles producing
gravitational fields, relative motions, with diverse ÒflavorsÓ or identities
(quarks and leptons) rather than atemporal, non-local, acausal, massless,
uncharged anonymous particles producing no gravitational fields and having
intrinsic absolute motion (photons).

In addition to actually paying the symmetry debts represented by charge,
the 4 forces of physics also conspire to maintain the invariance of charge and
other conserved parameters despite the imperfections of the material
environment (the Òholding actionsÓ mentioned above), and in this role are
designated Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ forces. (See: ÒGlobal vs Local Gauge Symmetry
and the Tetrahedron ModelÓ: Part 1.) It will be appreciated that the
maintenance of charge invariance is a necessary corollary of charge
conservation, and that this is not a trivial matter in our imperfect world of
matter, time, gravitation, relative motion, and entropic expansion. Thus, in
the electromagnetic force we find magnetism, which rises and falls with the
increase or decrease of the relative motion of electrically charged particles,
maintaining thereby the invariance of electric charge. The relative motion of
material objects in spacetime likewise produces ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ, the co-varying
effects of time and space described by EinsteinÕs Special Relativity, which
operate to protect causality, velocity c, and the invariance of the ÒIntervalÓ.
The Doppler effect resulting from the relative motion (or gravitational field)
of a source of light is a related example in which the frequency of light
changes while the velocity of light remains invariant.

Time itself is an alternative form of entropy drive produced by gravity
(via the annihilation of space), to compensate for matterÕs lack of intrinsic
spatial motion and the loss of lightÕs non-local distributional symmetry in
immobile, massive particles. Because the energy content of massive particles
varies with their velocity, the relative motion of massive particles would be
impossible without a time dimension to accommodate such variable energy
accounts. The historical domain likewise exists to accommodate the causal
relations of matter, as also necessitated by energy conservation.

**
Symmetry-Breaking**

The primordial
requirement of symmetry-breaking (the escape of matter from light and
annihilating particle-antiparticle pairs) followed by charge conservation has
left an indelible impress upon the composition and character of the atomic
system, including charge quantization, the fractional charges of the quarks,
and the division of atomic matter into mass-carrying quarks (nuclear material)
and charge-carrying electrons and neutrinos (hadrons vs leptons). The three-family structure of the quark
and lepton fields may be a further example.

The neutrino is an alternative form of ÒidentityÓ charge produced by the
weak force to compensate for the loss of the photonÕs symmetric ÒanonymityÓ by
the individually distinguishable spectrum of massive elementary particles.
(See: ÒThe Particle TableÓ.)
The alternative identity charges of the neutrinos (including their
ÒhandednessÓ) are crucially necessary to allow ÒBig BangÓ symmetry-breaking and
the escape of the material system of quarks and electrons from the otherwise
mutual destruction of annihilating matter-antimatter particle pairs. The
leptonic families in general act as alternative charge carriers for the
electric and identity charges of the mass-carrying quarks (or for each other) -
the proton/electron pair, and the electron/electron neutrino pair are examples.
(See: ÒIdentity Charge and
the Weak ForceÓ.) The entire elaborate mechanism of the weak force
(including the Higgs boson and the massive IVBs) is dedicated to the production
of invariant, single elementary particles in any time or place - particles
which can swap places (if necessary) with those created during the ÒBig BangÓ.
(See: ÒThe Higgs Boson and the
Weak Force IVBsÓ.)

The gluon field of the strong force is required to maintain the
wholeness of quantum charge units despite the fractional charges borne by
quarks. (See: ÒThe Strong Force:
Two ExpressionsÓ.) The quark fractional charges are in turn necessary to
the initial symmetry-breaking of the primordial particle-antiparticle pairs
(since they allow electrically neutral quark combinations). The asymmetric
production of matter from light during the Big Bang is thought to originate
with the (unexplained) asymmetric decay of leptoquark-antileptoquark pairs,
resulting in a tiny residue of matter. (See: ÒMaterial Expressions of Local
Gauge Symmetry: Parts 2, 3, 4Ó.) (See also: ÒThe Origin of Matter and
InformationÓ.) It has been suggested that the three-family structure of the
quark and lepton fields may be necessary to the primordial asymmetry between
matter and antimatter. (See: Frank Close: Antimatter, 2009, Oxford Univ.
Press.)

**Charge Now –
Pay Later**

The material system is conserved in spite of its imperfection; charge
conservation and charge invariance assure that the symmetry debt of light will
be paid in full, eventually, at some future time. The grandest expression
of cosmic dedication to charge and
symmetry conservation is the gravitational creation of time from space, for
without the time dimension charge conservation for the future payment of
symmetry debts would have no meaning. Our cosmos is a Òbuy-now, pay laterÓ
system of charge conservation and symmetry debts which runs on the credit card
of gravity. The entropy-interest on the symmetry debt of matter is paid by
gravitation; gravity creates time from space, decelerating the cosmic expansion
in consequence. Hence the entropy-energy to produce matterÕs time dimension and
the expansion of history is withdrawn from the expansion of space, which in
turn is driven by the intrinsic (entropic) motion of light. It is therefore the
expansive entropic energy of lightÕs spatial dimension which ultimately pays
for the expansive entropic energy of matterÕs historical dimension, just as the
raw energy of light pays for the raw energy of mass (hv = mcc). (The recently observed ÒaccelerationÓ of
the universal spatial expansion is caused by the relaxation of the global gravitational
field, as mass is converted to light by various astrophysical processes –
which may include the decay of Òdark matterÓ.) (See: ÒA Spacetime Map of the UniverseÓ.)
ÒEvery jot and tittle of the law will be fulfilledÕ; and ÒNot a sparrow falls
but the Father knowsÓ (an intuitive expression of the operation of conservation
law, anciently recognized).

**Causality: Time
Sequence and Energy Conservation – Metrics and Gauges**

In the ÒTetrahedron
ModelÓ we attempt to characterize reality in its most essential features
– much as the Greeks did with their Òfour elementsÓ – except the
present effort is in a ÒscientificÓ or rational mode. The ÒtrinityÓ of
conservation laws which apply to the transformation of light (free
electromagnetic energy) into matter (bound electromagnetic energy) are
conventional ÒStandard ModelÓ or ÒtextbookÓ principles: 1) the Conservation of
Energy (1st law of thermodynamics); 2) Entropy (2^{nd} law of
thermodynamics); 3) the Conservation of Symmetry (NoetherÕs Theorem). Our 4^{th}
and final choice is our general characterization of matter, the product of the
transformation of free electromagnetic energy to a bound, atomic form. Two
possibilities suggest themselves for conservation laws or principles which are
uniquely associated with or characterize matter: 1) Causality (law of cause and
effect – causes must precede effects and every effect must have a cause);
and 2) Information (which also is associated with a conservation law in quantum
mechanics to the effect that information cannot be destroyed) (see Leonard
SusskindÕs book: *The Black Hole War*,
2008, Little, Brown and Co.). Of these two I have chosen causality, because
causality implies information but the reverse in not true, at least to my
thinking; therefore, the causal law is the stronger and more encompassing
principle. Not that we can do without information – we must have it as a
corollary of causality. We cannot have a causal law unless we also have the information
which identifies both the cause and the effect (in Quantum Mechanics part of
this information may be hidden or ÒunavailableÓ in ÒcomplementaryÓ dyads such
as position/momentum or energy/time). Therefore, when we characterize matter
with causality we will sometimes specifically append information (as
Causality-Information), but we will always imply that causality carries with it
the associated concept of information. Information becomes a primary conceptual
principle in biological systems: biology is the information pathway whereby the
Cosmos achieves self-awareness and explores its creative potential. (See: ÒThe Information PathwayÓ.)

**Gravity and Time**

Causality implies the existence of a temporal metric which
orders the linear sequence of events, but this metric must be created with
matter since the time dimension does not exist for non-local light. Time and
place go together, and the task of creating a time dimension from matter falls
to gravity. All massive energy forms must produce a gravitational field because
gravity is how matter produces its time dimension. (All bound energy forms
carry the gravitational ÒlocationÓ charge (Gm), which is the symmetry debt of
the non-local distribution of lightÕs energy – a spatial distribution
symmetry obviously broken by immobile matter. LightÕs non-local symmetric
energy state is gauged by ÒcÓ, and matterÕs gravitational ÒlocationÓ charge is
gauged by ÒGÓ.) Gravity produces time
by the annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically equivalent
temporal residue. Time itself is the active principle of the gravitational
ÒlocationÓ charge. (See: ÒThe
Conversion of Space to TimeÓ.)

Time is necessary for bound energy for numerous reasons of energy
conservation. The energy content of matter varies with its relative motion and
this requires a time dimension for accounting purposes. Causality also is
required by energy conservation: causes must precede effects or there will be
no source of energy to produce the effect. The time dimension of bound energy
is also the entropy drive of bound energy – converted by gravity from the
entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of light). The intrinsic motion
of matterÕs time dimension is the entropy drive of matter and expansive
history, the gravitationally converted and conserved intrinsic motion of light
(the entropy drive of expansive space). Gravity is the force which mediates
between these two universal, primordial entropy drives, one spatial for free
electromagnetic energy, and one temporal for bound electromagnetic energy.
(See: ÒA Description of
GravitationÓ.) Gravity is weak because it creates only enough time to
satisfy the entropic drive of matterÕs ephemeral Òpresent momentÓ – not
matterÕs associated historical domain. (See: ÒProton Decay and the Heat Death of
the CosmosÓ.)

The gravitational, temporal metric of matter is superimposed upon the
spatial metric of light, producing a composite metric of spacetime which
governs our compound world of light and matter. (The ÒmetricÓ is the measured
relationship between the spatial and temporal dimensions. In our
electromagnetic system of spacetime, as gauged (regulated) by Òvelocity cÓ, one
second of temporal duration is metrically equivalent to 300,000 kilometers of
distance.) The spatial universe expands more slowly due to the presence of
matter and its associated gravitational field – historic spacetime
expands more slowly than pure space, while a gravitational version of ÒLorentz
InvarianceÓ protects the local value of velocity c, causality, and the
ÒIntervalÓ. Clocks run slow and meter sticks shrink in a gravitational field;
there is also a gravitational Doppler effect. However, in free fall or orbit,
clocks and meter sticks are unaffected. Measurements of velocity c at any given
location within a gravitational field (or elsewhere) always give the same
invariant value, because local clocks and meter sticks are affected in such a
(covariant) way as to maintain the invariance of c and safeguard the ÒIntervalÓ
and the principle of causality (and hence also energy conservation). There can
only be a single metric and hence a single value of c (the metric gauge) at a
single location in spacetime. Comparative ÒverticalÓ measurements, however,
(higher and lower in the gravitational field) will reveal differences in the
metric scale, due to the varying strength of the gravitational field. The
gravitational flow can be thought of as a response by spacetime to this
ÒwarpedÓ metric in the direction of ÒcheaperÓ energy (due to the slower
clock). From another perspective
that amounts to the same thing, I prefer to think of the gravitational flow as
caused or induced by the intrinsic motion of time: *a gravitational field is
the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time*. (See: ÒThe Conversion of Space to
TimeÓ.)

* *In
weak fields (as on planet Earth), gravity only pays the entropy
"interest" on the symmetry debt carried by matter, converting space
to time, providing an alternative entropic dimension in which charge
conservation can be expressed (entropy debts, like energy debts, must always be
paid immediately). In stronger fields, gravity also pays the
"principal" of matter's symmetry debt, converting mass to light, as
in our Sun (partially), and in Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes
(completely) (symmetry debts can be paid at any future time – unlike
energy or entropy debts). The second reaction reverses the effect of the first.
(See: ÒGravity, Entropy, and
ThermodynamicsÓ.) (See also: ÒExtending EinsteinÕs Equivalence
PrincipleÓ.)

**Summary**

Many if not most of the known characteristics of the forces can be
derived from the various conservation and other requirements which must be met
by any universal material system which successfully manifests (can break
symmetry initially, but nevertheless observes conservation and eventually
returns to its origin). The ultimate unity of the forces subsists in the fact
that matter is a bound state of transformed and conserved light, and all
matterÕs charges – and hence their associated forces – are symmetry
debts of light awaiting payment through time. Understanding the nature of the
symmetry debt of each charge and how it may be repaid is a major step toward
comprehending the Unified Field Theory. (See: ÒSymmetry Principles of the
Unified Field TheoryÓ; see also: ÒCurrents of Symmetry and EntropyÓ;
see also: ÒThe
Tetrahedrom Model in the Context of a Complete Conservation CycleÓ.)

The Unified field Theory can be approached or modeled in many ways.
Below I list a ÒcascadeÓ of effects beginning with the birth of the universe in
the ÒBig BangÓ and continuing to the eventual repayment of all symmetry and
entropy debts by the actions of the four forces (matter-antimatter
annihilation, proton decay, and HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes).
(See: ÒTable of the Higgs
CascadeÓ; and ÒThe Higgs
Boson and the Weak Force IVBsÓ.)

1) ÒLife-friendlyÓ physical constants (c, G, e, h, etc.)
– acquired from the Multiverse as a random sample of infinite
possibilities (ÒAnthropic PrincipleÓ). Requirement of zero net energy and
charge and complete conservation capability in order to manifest. (Seen as matter-antimatter
particle pairs and free vs bound electromagnetic energy (hv = mcc)). Negative
energy supplied by gravitation and antimatter (in particle-antiparticle pairs).
MatterÕs negative gravitational energy is equal to its positive rest-mass
energy.

2) Requirement for symmetry-breaking of primordial
particle-antiparticle pairs. Seen as fractional charges of quarks (to provide
electrically neutral nuclear combinations), and as alternative charge carriers
to circumvent antimatter charge partners. (Leptons, ÒhandedÓ neutrinos; the
proton/electron combination, etc.). Seen also as the weak force asymmetry in
decays of electrically neutral leptoquark-antileptoquark pairs (producing a net
residue of matter). Perhaps seen also in the three-family structure of elementary
particle fields thought necessary to produce the primordial matter-antimatter
asymmetry. (See: ÒThe Origin of
Matter and InformationÓ.)

3) Requirement to conserve the raw energy, symmetry, and entropy
of light in matter (seen as mass, charge, time). NoetherÕs Theorem. *The
charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. *Symmetry debts may be held in time for future payment (charge
conservation); energy and entropy debts must be paid immediately (mass/momentum/time
equivalent energy and dimensionality)*.* Gravity is both a symmetry and an entropy debt of light, creating
matterÕs time dimension by the annihilation of space (hence conserving lightÕs
entropy drive), and conserving lightÕs symmetry by the conversion of bound to
free energy (many astrophysical processes).* *

4) Requirement to maintain charge invariance and protect the
original value of symmetry debts (through time, despite entropy and relative
motion). Seen in Quantum Mechanics as quantized, conserved, invariant charges
which allow exact replication and hence conservation (via the principle of
charge conservation). Weak force production of single, invariant elementary
particles via massive IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) which recreate ÒBig
BangÓ force unity symmetry states (all electrons (and any other elementary
particles) must be identical to all others of their kind, including those
created eons ago in the ÒBig BangÓ). Elementary particles are always created
from particle-antiparticle pairs, which exist as potential forms of bound
electromagnetic energy in the ÒvacuumÓ or spacetime metric – this is the
necessary basis of their uniformity. Whereas the electromagnetic force only
creates particle-antiparticle pairs, the weak force only creates single
particles, which is why it must reproduce the initial environmental conditions
of the Big Bang via the Higgs boson (scalar) and the massive IVBs (transformation mechanism).
Other Òlocal gauge symmetryÓ forces (ÒholdingÓ forces) include: time and
magnetism (energy and charge conservation for relative motion); quark
confinement to whole quantum unit charges; ÒLorentz InvarianceÓ for massive
objects in relative motion and in gravitational fields (clocks run slow and
meter sticks shrink – protecting causality, velocity c, and the
ÒIntervalÓ). (See: ÒLocal vs
Global Gauge Symmetry in the Tetrahedron Model: Part 1Ó; and Material Effects of Local Gauge
Symmetry: Parts 2, 3, 4Ó.)

5) Evolutionary and life forces – information and
fractal algorithm; origin of life via universal 4x3 fractal algorithm; purpose
of life: the universe becomes self-aware and explores itself, including its
creative potential, which expands through life, evolution, and humanity. (See:
ÒDarwin, Newton, and the Origin
of LifeÓ.)

6) Requirement to pay symmetry debts – the four forces
are demands for payment of matterÕs symmetry debts. Matter-antimatter
annihilation; fusion/fission; proton decay; HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ. The
Sun is a local, partial example of this spontaneous process. Gravity creates
time from space and vice versa (in the conversion of mass to light); gravity is
a symmetry and an entropy debt of lightÕs non-local symmetric energy state.
(The intrinsic motion of light (entropy drive) and the Ònon-localÓ
distributional symmetry of light are both gauged (regulated) by Òvelocity cÓ.
Light has no spacetime location; lightÕs ÒIntervalÓ = zero). GravityÕs
ÒlocationÓ charge (of which time is the active principle) conserves both
lightÕs entropy drive and lightÕs non-local distributional symmetry: lightÕs entropy
drive is conserved immediately (as time), and lightÕs non-local distributional
symmetry is conserved eventually (through the conversion of mass to light in
stars and via HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes). (See: ÒThe Double Conservation Role of
GravityÓ.) The dimensions of spacetime are conservation domains for free
and bound electromagnetic energy, produced by the intrinsic (entropic) motions
of light, time, and gravity. Time is gravityÕs gift to matter and the Universe.
*Gravity is matterÕs memory it once was light.*

**Symmetry Debts of
the 4 Forces (and repayment modes)**

Light creates matter
which bears charges. *The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.* Charges produce forces which are demands for payment
of the symmetry debt.

(See: ÓTable of the 4 ForcesÓ
(short form)) (See: ÒTable of
the Four ForcesÓ (long form))

1) Electromagnetic Force: Electric Charge. Photons. 2-D vs
4-D: 2-D symmetric dimensionality of light vs 4-D asymmetric dimensionality
(time) of matter. Light is a two-dimensional transverse wave. Repayment
via exothermic chemical reactions
and matter-antimatter annihilations. (Suppression of time dimension, and suppression of spontaneous manifestation
of matter via annihilation of ÒvirtualÓ particle-antiparticle pairs.)
(ÒVelocity cÓ is the universal gauge of electromagnetic energy regulating the
spatial metric, the entropy drive of light, the non-local distributional
symmetry of lightÕs energy, the ÒIntervalÓ, causality, the equivalence of free
and bound electromagnetic energy, the value of electric charge, etc.)

2) Strong Force: Color Charge. Gluons. Fractional vs whole
quantum charge units. Quark fractional charges vs leptonic (elementary) whole
unit charges. Quark confinement (to whole charge units) via the gluon field.
Repayment via the nucleosynthetic pathway (fusion) and proton decay.
(Suppression of free-roaming fractional charges which could not be annihilated
or otherwise balanced by the whole charge units of leptonic alternative charge carriers.)

3) Weak force: ÒIdentityÓ Charge (AKA ÒflavorÓ or ÒnumberÓ
charge). Distinguishable identity of elementary massive leptonic particles
(including leptoquarks) vs anonymity of massless identical photons. (Neutrinos
are ÒbareÓ identity charges.) Repayment via radioactivity (fission), particle
and proton decay, and via contributions to the nucleosynthetic pathway. Initial
creation of matter in ÒBig BangÓ; subsequent creation of (single) invariant elementary
particles; weak ÒidentityÓ charge indicates appropriate antimatter partners for
swift annihilation reactions (left vs right-handed neutrinos and ÒnumberÓ charges).
(Suppression of non-conservable or non-uniform elementary particles and
reactions; distinguishes matter vs antimatter via neutrino ÒhandednessÓ.)

4) Gravitational Force: ÒLocationÓ Charge. Non-local
(ÒglobalÓ) distributional symmetry of photonÕs energy (due to intrinsic spatial
motion c) vs asymmetric (ÒlocalÓ) distribution of mass energy in particles
(which lack any intrinsic spatial motion). Due to the lack of a time dimension
and a spatial dimension (in the direction of propagation), the photon has
forever to go nowhere. Furthermore, due to the lack of two dimensions, the
photonÕs location in either 3 or 4 dimensions cannot be specified (light is a
2-dimensional transverse wave; lightÕs intrinsic motion Òsweeps outÓ a 3^{rd}
spatial dimension). The photonÕs energy (in its own reference frame) is
therefore distributed symmetrically everywhere simultaneously in space. Massive
particles break this symmetry because they lack intrinsic spatial motion of any
kind and their location in space and spacetime can therefore be specified
– breaking the distributional symmetry of the photonÕs energy and giving
rise to the gravitational ÒlocationÓ charge carried by every massive particle
and energy form (Gm). (The active principle of the gravitational charge is
time.) (See: ÒSymmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 1 and Part 2Ó.) Repayment via the
gravitational conversion of mass to light as in the stars, supernovas, and
quasars (partially), and via HawkingÕs Òquantum radianceÓ of black holes
(completely). (Suppression of ÒwormholesÓ, causality violations, and
connections to other universes - via the Òevent horizonÓ and the central
ÒsingularityÓ of black holes.)

The four forces can be related (in a general sense and with some
overlap) to the four conservation principles of the ÒTetrahedron ModelÓ as
follows:

1) Energy Conservation – light, free electromagnetic
energy: Electromagnetic Force;

2) Entropy – c, G, T (intrinsic motions of light,
gravity, time – space, spacetime, history): Gravitational Force;

3) Symmetry Conservation – charge, charge
conservation, and symmetry-breaking: Weak Force;

4) Causality-Information – nuclear matter, mass, bound
electromagnetic energy: Strong Force.

The four forces help the system manifest through the Higgs Cascade in the form of Òunified-force
symmetric energy statesÓ which provide stages, stepping stones, or energy
plateaus (symmetry domains) in which precisely replicable transformations (from
greater to lesser unified-force symmetry states) can occur, allowing the next
lower symmetric force domain to manifest in a reproducible, conservable form
(four stages: TOE (all forces unified; fermions and bosons unified); GUT
(strong and electroweak forces unified; quarks and leptons unified); EW
(electroweak unification; quark families unified; lepton families unified); EM
(electromagnetic ground state; electric and magnetic forces unified). (See: ÒTable of the Higgs CascadeÓ.)
Once the ground state is reached, the same four forces begin the slow but sure
process of symmetry debt payment, as outlined above. While this restoration of
symmetry is going on, there is plenty of time and energy available for the
evolution of life and the self-awareness and self-exploration of the cosmos,
including new creative modes. The same information (charge) that conserves and
restores symmetry is used to create life, following the 4x3 fractal information
pathway. Human spirituality (including ethics) and creativity (including
aesthetics) are our most highly evolved capacities; human appetites and
destructiveness our least. (See: ÒThe Fractal Organization of
NatureÓ.)

Finally, we ask why the universe bothers to exist at all? Speaking
philosophically, itÕs just that existence is so much more interesting than
non-existence. The ÒTrinityÓ gets bored of its own perfection. And with so much
creative energy in play, spontaneous symmetry-breaking from the Multiverse is
bound to occur (Òeternal inflation?Ó). We are the means whereby the universe
experiences and looks at itself; it is therefore no wonder that we often see an
image of ourselves looking back.

**Links:**

**Unified Field Theory**

Section
I: Introduction to Unification

Section
X: Introduction to Conservation

Section
IX: Symmetry: Noether`s Theorem and Einstein's "Interval"

Symmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory (a "Theory of Everything") -
Part I

Symmetry
Principles of the Unified Field Theory (a "Theory of Everything") -
Part 2

Principles
of the Unified Field Theory: A Tetrahedral Model

(Postscript
and Commentary on paper above)

Synopsis
of the Unification Theory: The System of Spacetime

Synopsis
of the Unification Theory: The System of Matter

Global-Local
Gauge Symmetries and the "Tetrahedron Model"

Global-Local
Gauge Symmetries: Material Effects of Local Gauge Symmetries

The
"Tetrahedron Model" vs the "Standard Model" of Physics: A
Comparison

A
Short Course in the Unified Field Theory

**Gravitation**

Section
II: Introduction to Gravitation

Global-Local
Gauge Symmetries in Gravitation

The
Double Conservation Role of Gravitation: Entropy vs Symmetry

12
Summary Points Concerning Gravitation

Extending
Einstein's "Equivalence Principle"

The
Conversion of Space to Time

"Dark
Energy": Does Light Produce a Gravitational field?

**Entropy**

Section
VII: Introduction to Entropy

Entropy,
Gravitation, and Thermodynamics

Currents
of Symmetry and Entropy

The
Halflife of Proton Decay and the 'Heat Death' of the Cosmos

**Weak Force, Intermediate Vector Bosons ("IVBs")**

Section
IV: Introduction to the Weak Force

The
"W" Intermediate Vector Boson and the Weak Force Mechanism
(pdf file)

The
"W" IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism (html file)

Global-Local
Gauge Symmetries of the Weak Force

The
Weak Force: Identity or Number Charge

The
Weak Force "W" Particle as the Bridge Between Symmetric (2-D) and
Asymmetric (4-D) Reality

The
Strong and Weak Short-Range Particle Forces

Section
XVI: Introduction to the Higgs Boson

The
"Higgs" Boson and the Spacetime Metric

The
"Higgs" Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Part I

The
"Higgs" Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Parts II, III, IV

"Dark
Matter" and the Weak Force

Section
XVIII: The Strong Force: Two Expressions