In my own work I have tried to simplify the "mass problem" to its barest bones. To begin with, I make the assumption that all mass is the consequence of weak force symmetry-breaking during the "Big Bang". Without weak force symmetry-breaking, the universe would have remained in its original state of perfect symmetry, composed only of photons, space, and virtual particle-antiparticle pairs (of leptons, neutrinos, quarks, etc.). Hence the proximate origin of mass is laid (in this view) directly to the "precipitating action" of the weak force asymmetry, the IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons), and the Higgs boson which, acting together, "condense" matter from the primordial symmetric state of free electromagnetic energy (high-energy light). "Mass" is a conservation parameter for the raw energy of bound electromagnetic energy (such as immobile atomic particles lacking "intrinsic motion c"); particles of matter are created from photons and their associated virtual particle-antiparticle pairs by the asymmetric action of the weak force during the "Creation Event". So a further question is: why does free electromagnetic energy (light) exist in two forms - photons and virtual particle/antiparticle pairs? I don't think there is any answer to this ultimate question - it's simply a "given" of electromagnetic energy and our universe. Ours is an electromagnetic universe, and electromagnetic energy has this dual nature, without which the cosmos as we know it could not exist. (I like to say that our universe is an electromagnetic subset of the multiverse; however, perhaps we should say that our universe is an "anthropic" subset of an electromagnetic multiverse - at least this is a scenario we can actually imagine.)
We might also say that electromagnetic energy exists in two major
phases, one symmetric and free (light), and the other asymmetric
and bound (atomic matter). The bound phase is derived from
("condensed" from) the photons and virtual particles of the free
phase (via the asymmetric decays of the weak force), and is
interchangeable with it. The transition from one phase to another
is instantaneous or nearly so (as in the creation/annihilation of
particle-antiparticle pairs via the electromagnetic force, or the
creation/annihilation of single particles via the weak
force). Since light is 2-dimensional and matter is 4-dimensional,
the phase transition is inter-dimensional, involving most
significantly (in the 4-D case) the asymmetric one-way time
dimension. This loss of symmetry requires a conservation response:
electric charge and the neutrino's spin combine to register the
symmetry loss of antimatter. Non-local light (with "intrinsic"
(entropic) spatial motion "c") is converted to local particles
with no intrinsic spatial motion, but with a metrically and
functionally equivalent "intrinsic" (entropic) temporal motion.
The raw energy of the converted photons is conserved as the "mass"
of the particles. The symmetry of the photons is conserved via the
various conserved charges of matter (as required by "Noether's
Theorem - the charges of matter are symmetry debts of light).
Herein lies the conceptual union
of the four forces of physics. One of these conserved charges is
the "location" charge of gravity, which registers the lost
"non-local" spatial distribution symmetry of the light which
created the particles. This gravitational "location" charge is
dimensionally active, converting
space into time. In fact, time is the active principle of
the gravitational charge: a "graviton" is a quantum unit of time.
Herein lies the conceptual union between gravity and quantum
mechanics. (See: "A
Description of Gravity".)
The gravitational conversion of space into time is the conversion of the fundamental spatial entropic drive of light or free electromagnetic energy (the intrinsic spatial motion of light), into the historical entropic drive of bound electromagnetic energy (the intrinsic temporal motion of matter). Gravity introduces a temporal component into the spatial metric of light, which thereby becomes the composite metric of spacetime, necessary to accommodate the conservation requirements of a universe composed of both free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy. In the extreme case of the "black hole", the gravitational temporal metric of matter completely overtakes and replaces the electromagnetic spatial metric of light.
The conversion of symmetric light to asymmetric matter brings
with it as conservation consequences four new asymmetries: time,
charge, mass, and gravity, all related and actively involved in
the conservation of light's original energy and symmetry, and the
return of matter to its original symmetric state (witness our sun,
and the ultimate conversion of all mass to light via Hawking's
"quantum radiance" of black holes).
The gravitational field produced by mass is an asymmetric metric
field (because of its temporal component), which interacts with
and distorts the symmetric electromagnetic metric field of space.
Recall these fields extend throughout the universe. Forcing the
actively distorting gravitational field through the symmetric
spatial metric field (as during accelerated motion) produces a
natural resistance (since work must be done to distort the
symmetric field), and yields the phenomenon of "inertial" mass;
inertial mass is equivalent to gravitational "weight", since the
accelerated flow of metric spacetime in the two cases is
reciprocally equivalent (either we accelerate through spacetime or
spacetime accelerates through us). (Note that this "inertial mass
via the metric distortion of gravitation" hypothesis provides a
universal inertial resistance to any kind of mass or bound energy,
in exact proportion, and is not the same mechanism as the "Higgs
boson drag" proposed by the "Standard Model", which apparently
affects only elementary particles.) (See: "The Higgs Boson vs
the Spacetime Metric".)
This is how I understand mass in the "Tetrahedron Model",
considering only the "forest" and not looking at specific "trees",
not overly concerning myself with the different kinds of bound
energy. The role of the "Higgs boson" in my view is to gauge
(scale) the IVB mass, which in turn gauges the mass of the
particles they transform, whether quarks or leptons. (See: "The Higgs Boson and
the Weak Force IVBs".)
For more (qualitative) details on my view of the weak force mechanism, see the various papers in the weak force section of my website. But the quantitative detail I gladly (and perforce) leave to the expertise of the mathematically gifted.
To summarize, in this conception I do not try to distinguish between various sources of "mass", but recognize all mass as due to a universal conservation parameter for raw energy triggered by the change of phase from 2-D symmetrically distributed and "non-local" light (with "intrinsic" (entropic) motion in space ("velocity c"), to 4-D asymmetric and "local" (undistributed) matter with "intrinsic" (entropic) motion in time. Time is the alternative and asymmetric (one-way due to causality) entropy drive for bound electromagnetic energy (atomic matter), creating history, the information conservation domain for causal matter. Light, being acausal, requires only space as an entropic domain for energy conservation. Time is derived from the primary and symmetric "all-way" spatial entropy drive of free electromagnetic energy (light's "intrinsic" motion), via the gravitational conversion of space to time, creating historic spacetime. Historic spacetime is the compound metric and entropic conservation domain of our universe, accommodating (as it must) both free and bounds forms of electromagnetic energy. "Mass" is a property (conserving raw energy) of any energy form which is derived from light, but does not itself move at velocity "c". Any energy form which has a time dimension also has mass and a corresponding gravitational energy (Gm) - which creates the time dimension of mass via the annihilation of space. Spatial annihilation leaves a metrically equivalent temporal residue which has its own "intrinsic" (entropic) motion into history, continuing the self-feeding cycle of the gravitational conversion of space into time, a cycle which ends only with the conversion of mass to light. A gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".
See (article): The Discovery of the Higgs Boson
Science 21 December 2012: Vol. 338 no. 6114 pp. 1524-1525 DOI: 10.1126/science.338.6114.1524
See (article): The Higgs Boson
Science 21 December 2012: Vol. 338 no. 6114 pp. 1558-1559 DOI: 10.1126/science.338.6114.1558
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